Send to

Choose Destination
Ethn Health. 2017 Jul 1:1-21. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2017.1346785. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence and correlates of everyday discrimination among black Caribbeans in the United States: the impact of nativity and country of origin.

Author information

a School of Social Work and Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.
b Department of Behavioral Sciences , University of Michigan , Dearborn , MI , USA.
c Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey , New Brunswick , NJ , USA.
d Department of Sociology , Race and Ethnic Studies Institute, Texas A & M University , College Station , TX , USA.
e Department of Human Development and Family Studies , Auburn University , Auburn , AL , USA.
f School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Institute for Social Research , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.



Black Caribbeans in the United States have been the victims of major discrimination (e.g. unfairly fired, denied a promotion, denied housing). What is not known is the degree to which they also experience more routine forms of everyday discrimination such as receiving poor restaurant service, being perceived as dishonest, and being followed in stores. This paper investigates the distribution and correlates of everyday discrimination among a national sample of black Caribbeans in the U.S.


This analysis used the black Caribbean sub-sample (nā€‰=ā€‰1,621) of the National Survey of American Life. Demographic and immigration status correlates of ten items from the Everyday Discrimination Scale were investigated: being treated with less courtesy, treated with less respect, receiving poor restaurant service, being perceived as not smart, being perceived as dishonest, being perceived as not as good as others, and being feared, insulted, harassed, or followed in stores.


Roughly one out of ten black Caribbeans reported that, on a weekly basis, they were treated with less courtesy and other people acted as if they were better than them, were afraid of them, and as if they were not as smart. Everyday discrimination was more frequent for black Caribbeans who were male, never married, divorced/separated, earned higher incomes, and who were second or third generation immigrants. Black Caribbeans attributed the majority of the discrimination they experienced to their race.


To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of everyday discrimination among the black Caribbean population. It provides the frequency, types and correlates of everyday discrimination reported by black Caribbeans in the United States. Understanding the frequency and types of discrimination is important because of the documented negative impacts of everyday discrimination on physical and mental health.


Discrimination; afro-Caribbean; immigration; microaggression; racial discrimination; racism

[Available on 2019-01-01]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center