Send to

Choose Destination
NMC Case Rep J. 2014 May 9;1(1):1-5. doi: 10.2176/nmccrj.2013-0343. eCollection 2014 Oct.

Recurrence of a Refractory Chronic Subdural Hematoma after Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization That Required Craniotomy.

Author information

Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Hospital Organization, Kobe City Medical General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo.


Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization has been performed to treat refractory chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with good reported outcomes. We have treated three cases of CSDH with MMA embolization to date, but there was a postoperative recurrence in one patient, which required a craniotomy for hematoma removal and capsulectomy. MMA embolization blocks the blood supply from the dura to the hematoma outer membrane in order to prevent recurrences of refractory CSDH. Histopathologic examination of the outer membrane of the hematoma excised during craniotomy showed foreign-body giant cells and neovascular proliferation associated with embolization. Because part of the hematoma was organized in this case, the CSDH did not resolve when the MMA was occluded, and the development of new collateral pathways in the hematoma outer membrane probably contributed to the recurrence. Therefore, in CSDH with some organized hematoma, MMA embolization may not be effective. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed in these patients before embolization.


chronic subdural hematoma; craniotomy; middle meningeal artery embolization; refractory chronic subdural hematoma

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest Disclosure None declared. All authors who are members of The Japan Neurosurgical Society (JNS) have registered online Self-reported COI Disclosure Statement Forms through the website for JNS members.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center