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Front Physiol. 2017 Jun 12;8:377. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00377. eCollection 2017.

Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

Author information

1
Faculty of Sport Science and Physical Education, Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity, University of CoimbraCoimbra, Portugal.
2
Research Group in Prevention and Health in Exercise and Sport, University of ValenciaValencia, Spain.
3
CIAMS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-SaclayOrsay, France.
4
CIAMS, Université d'OrléansOrléans, France.
5
UMR 1019, INRA, Equipe ECREIN UNHClermont-Ferrand, France.

Abstract

Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

KEYWORDS:

C-reactive protein; Interferon-gamma; Interleukin-10; cognition; elastic band resistance training; older women; tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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