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J Vet Med Educ. Spring 2018;45(1):76-84. doi: 10.3138/jvme.0316-073R. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Student-Initiated Feedback Using Clinical Encounter Cards during Clinical Rotations in Veterinary Medicine: A Feasibility Study.


Despite its critical role for successful student learning, providing adequate teacher feedback is still a major issue during clinical education. In human medical education, the implementation of clinical encounter cards (CECs) has led to more frequent, timely, and structured teacher feedback. The present study aimed to introduce student-initiated CECs in a veterinary medical setting (clinical rotations). A total of 24 students were randomly assigned to a control group (standard rotations) and an intervention group where they had to ask for teacher feedback using CECs. The feasibility of implementing CECs was evaluated by examining the content of the completed CECs and by using anonymous student and teacher questionnaires. In addition, acceptance of the intervention and changes in feedback behavior were examined from both the teachers' and students' perspectives. Overall, it was shown that using CECs is not only feasible in a veterinary clinical setting but also conducive to more frequent and constructive teacher feedback. However, some teachers postponed completing the CECs due to time pressure, leading to less direct and timely feedback. Moreover, students felt more comfortable asking for feedback from less experienced, younger teachers, and teachers' quantitative ratings and open commentaries seemed to be affected by leniency bias. Finally, a focus group including teachers and students discussed these results in light of their practical experiences. This led to a streamlining of the implementation process and optimizations to facilitate future large-scale implementation. The study has implications for veterinary educators wishing to improve feedback in their institution.


clinical encounter card; feedback documentation; feedback notes; student-centered learning; student-initiated feedback; veterinary medical education

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