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Psychol Med. 2018 Jan;48(1):123-131. doi: 10.1017/S0033291717001556. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Tobacco smoking is associated with psychotic experiences in the general population of South London.

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Department of Psychosis Studies,Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London,London.
Department of Psychological Medicine,Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London,London.
National Addictions Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience and UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, King's College London,London.
Cornwall Partnership Foundation NHS Trust,Cornwall.



The association between cigarette smoking and psychosis remains unexplained, but could relate to causal effects in both directions, confounding by socioeconomic factors, such as ethnicity, or use of other substances, including cannabis. Few studies have evaluated the association between cigarettes and psychotic experiences (PEs) in diverse, inner-city populations, or relationships with number of cigarettes consumed.


We assessed associations and dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and PEs in a cross-sectional survey of household residents (n = 1680) in South East London, using logistic regression to adjust for cannabis use, other illicit substances, and socioeconomic factors, including ethnicity.


We found association between any PEs and daily cigarette smoking, which remained following adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, cannabis and use of illicit stimulant drugs (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.15). Fully adjusted estimates for the association, and with number of PEs, increased with number of cigarettes smoked daily, implying a dose-response effect (p = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Odds of reporting any PEs in ex-smokers were similar to never-smokers.


In this diverse epidemiological sample, association between smoking and PEs was not explained by confounders such as cannabis or illicit drugs. Daily cigarette consumption showed a dose-response relationship with the odds of reporting PEs, and of reporting a greater number of PEs. There was no difference in odds of reporting PEs between ex-smokers and never-smokers, raising the possibility that the increase in PEs associated with smoking may be reversible.


Confounding; epidemiology; ethnicity; psychosis; tobacco smoking

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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