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Nat Commun. 2017 Jun 26;8:15475. doi: 10.1038/ncomms15475.

Prevalence of sexual dimorphism in mammalian phenotypic traits.

Collaborators (159)

Obata Y, Suzuki T, Tamura M, Kaneda H, Furuse T, Kobayashi K, Miura I, Yamada I, Tanaka N, Yoshiki A, Ayabe S, Clary DA, Tolentino HA, Schuchbauer MA, Tolentino T, Aprile JA, Pedroia SM, Kelsey L, Vukobradovic I, Berberovic Z, Owen C, Qu D, Guo R, Newbigging S, Morikawa L, Law N, Shang X, Feugas P, Wang Y, Eskandarian M, Zhu Y, Nutter LMJ, Penton P, Laurin V, Clarke S, Lan Q, Sohel K, Miller D, Clark G, Hunter J, Cabezas J, Bubshait M, Carroll T, Tondat S, MacMaster S, Pereira M, Gertsenstein M, Danisment O, Jacob E, Creighton A, Sleep G, Clark J, Teboul L, Fray M, Caulder A, Loeffler J, Codner G, Cleak J, Johnson S, Szoke-Kovacs Z, Radage A, Maritati M, Mianne J, Gardiner W, Allen S, Cater H, Stewart M, Keskivali-Bond P, Sinclair C, Brown E, Doe B, Wardle-Jones H, Grau E, Griggs N, Woods M, Kundi H, Griffiths MND, Kipp C, Melvin DG, Raj NPS, Holroyd SA, Gannon DJ, Alcantara R, Galli A, Hooks YE, Tudor CL, Green AL, Kussy FL, Tuck EJ, Siragher EJ, Maguire SA, Lafont DT, Vancollie VE, Pearson SA, Gates AS, Sanderson M, Shannon C, Anthony LFE, Sumowski MT, McLaren RSB, Swiatkowska A, Isherwood CM, Cambridge EL, Wilson HM, Caetano SS, Mazzeo CI, Dabrowska MH, Lillistone C, Estabel J, Maguire AKB, Roberson LA, Pavlovic G, Birling MC, Marie WD, Jacquot S, Ayadi A, Ali-Hadji D, Charles P, André P, Le Marchand E, El Amri A, Vasseur L, Aguilar-Pimentel A, Becker L, Treise I, Moreth K, Stoeger T, Amarie OV, Neff F, Wurst W, Bekeredjian R, Ollert M, Klopstock T, Calzada-Wack J, Marschall S, Brommage R, Steinkamp R, Lengger C, Östereicher MA, Maier H, Stoeger C, Leuchtenberger S, Yildrim A, Garrett L, Hölter SM, Zimprich A, Seisenberger C, Bürger A, Graw J, Eickelberg O, Zimmer A, Wolf E, Busch DH, Klingenspor M, Schmidt-Weber C, Gailus-Durner V, Beckers J, Rathkolb B, Rozman J.

Author information

1
Mouse Informatics Group, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.
2
Quantitative Biology, AstraZeneca, Unit 310, Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG, UK.
3
European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK.
4
Human and Molecular Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
5
Department of Statistics and O.R. School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.
6
Mouse Biology Program, University of California, 2795 Second Street, Suite 400, Davis, California 95618, USA.
7
The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.
8
MRC Harwell Institute, Harwell Campus, Harwell OX11 0RD, UK.
9
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
10
The Centre for Phenogenomics, 25 Orde Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 3H7.
11
German Mouse Clinic, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
12
School of Life Science Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Alte Akademie 8, Freising 85354, Germany.
13
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Ingostädter Landstr. 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
14
Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, 12 Xuefu Road, Pukou, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210061, China.
15
CELPHEDIA, PHENOMIN, Institut Clinique de la Souris, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, Illkirch 67404, France.
16
Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, Illkirch 67404, France.
17
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7104, 1 rue Laurent Fries, Illkirch 67404, France.
18
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U964, 1 rue Laurent Fries, Illkirch 67404, France.
19
Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, Illkirch 67404, France.
20
The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8.
21
Mouse Genetics Project, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.
22
Department of Genetics, Evolution &Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
23
BioResource Center, RIKEN, 3-1-1 Koyadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0074, Japan.
24
The Hospital for Sick Children, 686 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 0A4.
25
Genetics Institute, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
26
Clinical Pharmacology, Queen Mary University of London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
27
Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, Wolfson Wing, Hodgkin Building, Guys Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK.
28
Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Jr Way, Oakland, California 94609, USA.

Abstract

The role of sex in biomedical studies has often been overlooked, despite evidence of sexually dimorphic effects in some biological studies. Here, we used high-throughput phenotype data from 14,250 wildtype and 40,192 mutant mice (representing 2,186 knockout lines), analysed for up to 234 traits, and found a large proportion of mammalian traits both in wildtype and mutants are influenced by sex. This result has implications for interpreting disease phenotypes in animal models and humans.

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