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J Nephrol. 2018 Feb;31(1):95-102. doi: 10.1007/s40620-017-0417-7. Epub 2017 Jun 24.

A questionnaire survey of radiological diagnosis and management of renal dysplasia in children.

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Pediatric Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via della Commenda 9, 20122, Milano, Italy.
Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant, Dipartimento Chirurgico, Medico, Odontoiatrico e di Scienze Morfologiche con Interesse Trapiantologico, Oncologico e di Medicina Rigenerativa, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Children's Hospital Marburg, Philipps-University Marburg, Marbug, Germany.



The condition called renal dysplasia is considered to be a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease in children. Formally, it is defined by histological parameters. In current nephrology practice, however, the appearance of the kidneys on ultrasound scanning is often used as a basis for the diagnosis.


The European Society for Pediatric Nephrology Working Group on Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract hypothesized that the current diagnostic approach with regard to renal dysplasia was not homogeneous. Accordingly, we here report the results of a survey targeting pediatric nephrologists with 12 questions regarding their perceptions of the ultrasonographic characteristics of renal dysplasia and further tests that they might undertake.


Of almost 1200 physicians who successfully received the invitation, 248 from 54 countries completed the survey. There was a notable lack of homogeneity regarding the ultrasonographic diagnosis of renal dysplasia and also of follow-up tests, including genetic testing and further radiology.


Based on the responses to this large survey, a picture emerges of nephrologists' current clinical practice with regard to renal dysplasia. The Working Group considers that these results serve as an important sounding board which can provide the basis for more definitive recommendations regarding the challenges to clinical diagnosis and diagnostic follow-up of this important condition.


CAKUT; Children; Chronic kidney disease; Genetic testing; Renal dysplasia; Ultrasonography

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