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Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Sep;107(Pt A):108-121. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.06.033. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Impact on environment, ecosystem, diversity and health from culturing and using GMOs as feed and food.

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Laboratory of Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Chonnam, 59626, Republic of Korea.
Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, Moscow, Russian Federation.
Educational Scientific Center of Nanotechnology, Engineering School, Far Eastern Federal Univeristy, 37 Pushkinskaya Street, 690950, Vladivostok, Russian Federation.
Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, 81100, Greece.
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science and Technology, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828, Republic of Korea.
Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Geyongnam 52828, Republic of Korea.
School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, Chonnam, 59626, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:


Modern agriculture provides the potential for sustainable feeding of the world's increasing population. Up to the present moment, genetically modified (GM) products have enabled increased yields and reduced pesticide usage. Nevertheless, GM products are controversial amongst policy makers, scientists and the consumers, regarding their possible environmental, ecological, and health risks. Scientific-and-political debates can even influence legislation and prospective risk assessment procedure. Currently, the scientifically-assessed direct hazardous impacts of GM food and feed on fauna and flora are conflicting; indeed, a review of literature available data provides some evidence of GM environmental and health risks. Although the consequences of gene flow and risks to biodiversity are debatable. Risks to the environment and ecosystems can exist, such as the evolution of weed herbicide resistance during GM cultivation. A matter of high importance is to provide precise knowledge and adequate current information to regulatory agencies, governments, policy makers, researchers, and commercial GMO-releasing companies to enable them to thoroughly investigate the possible risks.


Environmental risk; GMO; GMO law; Precision agriculture; Toxicity

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