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J Periodontol. 2017 Oct;88(10):1059-1065. doi: 10.1902/jop.2017.170197. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Comparison of Periodontal Parameters and Self-Perceived Oral Symptoms Among Cigarette Smokers, Individuals Vaping Electronic Cigarettes, and Never-Smokers.

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Department of General Dentistry, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.
Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.
Department of Oral Surgery and Implant Dentistry, Dental School, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY.



To the authors' knowledge, there are no studies that have compared periodontal parameters and self-perceived oral symptoms (OSs) among cigarette smokers (CSs) (group 1), individuals exclusively vaping electronic cigarettes (group 2), and never-smokers (NSs) (group 3). The aim of this study is to assess periodontal parameters and self-perceived OSs among vaping individuals, CSs, and NSs.


Ninety-four male participants (groups 1, 2, and 3: 33, 31, and 30 individuals, respectively) were included. Demographic data, self-perceived OSs, and duration and daily frequency of vaping and smoking were gathered using a questionnaire. Full-mouth plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) ≥4 mm, and clinical attachment loss (AL) were measured; marginal bone loss (MBL) around all teeth was measured on digital radiographs. Numbers of missing teeth (MT) were also recorded. Odds ratios were calculated for OSs, and periodontal parameters were assessed using analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


PI (P <0.01) and PD ≥4 mm (P <0.01) were significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3. BOP was significantly higher in group 3 than in groups 1 (P <0.01) and 2 (P <0.01). There was no difference in number of MT, clinical AL, and MBL among all groups. Gingival pain was more often reported by individuals in group 1 than by individuals in groups 2 (P <0.01) and 3 (P <0.01).


Periodontal inflammation and self-perceived OSs were poorer among CSs than among vaping individuals and NSs.


Dental plaque index; electronic cigarettes; periodontal index; periodontal pocket; smoking; tooth loss

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