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Front Aging Neurosci. 2017 Jun 8;9:178. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00178. eCollection 2017.

Enhanced Working Memory Binding by Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Parietal Cortex.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Experimental Psychology and Neuroscience (LPEN), Institute of Cognitive and Translational Neuroscience (INCyT), INECO Foundation, Favaloro UniversityBuenos Aires, Argentina.
2
National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET)Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3
Instituto de Ingeniería Biomédica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos AiresBuenos Aires, Argentina.
4
Hospital Italiano de Buenos AiresBuenos Aires, Argentina.
5
Consciousness and Cognition Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of CambridgeCambridge, United Kingdom.
6
Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Heriot-Watt UniversityEdinburgh, United Kingdom.
7
Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre, Department of Psychology, University of EdinburghEdinburgh, United Kingdom.
8
Neuroprogressive and Dementia Network, NHS Research ScotlandEdinburgh, United Kingdom.
9
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma del CaribeBarranquilla, Colombia.
10
Faculty of Education, National University of Cuyo (UNCuyo)Mendoza, Argentina.
11
Center for Social and Cognitive Neuroscience (CSCN), School of Psychology, Universidad Adolfo IbañezSantiago, Chile.
12
Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Australian Research Council (ARC)Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Abstract

Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM) binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer's patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding. A unique approach to assess this issue is afforded by single-subject direct intracranial electrical stimulation of specific brain regions during a relevant cognitive task. Electrical stimulation has been used both for clinical purposes and to causally probe brain mechanisms. Previous evidence of electrical currents spreading through white matter along well defined functional circuits indicates that visual working memory mechanisms are subserved by a specific widely distributed network. Here, we stimulated the parietal cortex of a subject with intracranial electrodes as he performed the visual STM task. We compared the ensuing results to those from a non-stimulated condition and to the performance of a matched control group. In brief, direct stimulation of the parietal cortex induced a selective improvement in STM. These results, together with previous studies, provide very preliminary but promising ground to examine behavioral changes upon parietal stimulation in AD. We discuss our results regarding: (a) the usefulness of the task to target prodromal stages of AD; (b) the role of a posterior network in STM binding and in AD; and.

KEYWORDS:

Alzhimer’s disease; direct electrical stimulation; short term memory; single case study; working memory binding

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