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Metabolism. 2017 Jul;72:18-26. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2017.04.001. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

Associations of maternal prenatal smoking with umbilical cord blood hormones: the Project Viva cohort.

Author information

1
Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME, USA; Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Portland, ME, USA. Electronic address: afleisch@mmc.org.
2
Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA, USA; Diabetes Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.
4
Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low fetal growth and adverse cardiometabolic health in offspring. However, hormonal pathways underlying these associations are unclear. Therefore, we examined maternal smoking habits and umbilical cord blood hormone profiles in a large, prospective cohort.

METHODS:

We studied 978 mother/infant pairs in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We categorized mothers as early pregnancy smokers, former smokers, or never smokers. Outcomes were cord blood concentrations of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, parity, education, and infant sex. We conducted analyses in the full cohort and stratified by infant sex.

RESULTS:

Thirteen percent of women were early pregnancy smokers, 20% former smokers, and 68% never smokers. Infants of early pregnancy smokers had lower IGF-1 adjusted for IGFBP-3 [-5.2ng/mL (95% CI: -8.6, -1.7)], with more pronounced associations in girls [-10.7ng/mL (95% CI: -18.5, -2.9) vs. -4.0ng/mL (95% CI: -8.4, 0.4) for boys]. Early pregnancy smoking was not associated with cord blood hormones other than IGF-1. Infants of former smokers had a cord blood hormone profile similar to infants of never smokers.

CONCLUSIONS:

As compared to mothers who never smoked, early pregnancy smokers had infants with lower cord blood IGF-1 which could prime adverse metabolic outcomes. This provides further reason to support smoking cessation programs in women of reproductive age.

KEYWORDS:

Cord blood; Hormones; Insulin-like growth factor (IGF); Pregnancy; Smoking

PMID:
28641780
PMCID:
PMC5497769
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2017.04.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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