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Metabolism. 2017 Jul;72:120-143. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2017.04.005. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

Macrophage functions in lean and obese adipose tissue.

Author information

1
Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Weight Management, Boston Medical Center, 88 East Newton Street, H-3600, Boston, MA 02118. Electronic address: dylan.thomas@bmc.org.
2
Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Weight Management, Boston Medical Center, 88 East Newton Street, Robinson 4400, Boston, MA 02118. Electronic address: caroline.apovian@bmc.org.

Abstract

Interactions between macrophages and adipocytes influence both metabolism and inflammation. Obesity-induced changes to macrophages and adipocytes lead to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. This paper reviews the various functions of macrophages in lean and obese adipose tissue and how obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes. Metabolic disease and insulin resistance shift the balance between numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators of macrophages and create a feed-forward loop of increasing inflammatory macrophage activation and worsening adipocyte dysfunction. This ultimately leads to adipose tissue fibrosis and diabetes. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes have therapeutic implications for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Adipose; Fibrosis; Inflammation; Insulin; Macrophage; Obesity

PMID:
28641779
PMCID:
PMC5516622
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2017.04.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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