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Compr Physiol. 2017 Jun 18;7(3):819-840. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c160027.

Impact of Growth Hormone on Regulation of Adipose Tissue.

Author information

1
The Diabetes Institute at Ohio University, 108 Konneker Research Labs, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA.
2
School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, College of Health Sciences and Professions, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA.
4
Edison Biotechnology Institute, Konneker Research Labs, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA.
5
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA.

Abstract

Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output. We will provide an overview of GH structure and function and define several human conditions and cognate mouse lines with extremes in GH action that have helped shape our understanding of GH and AT. A detailed discussion of the GH/AT relationship will be included that addresses adipokine production, immune cell populations, lipid metabolism, senescence, differentiation, and fibrosis, as well as brown AT and beiging of white AT. A brief overview of how GH levels are altered in an obese state, and the efficacy of GH as a therapeutic option to manage obesity will be given. As we will reveal, the effects of GH on AT are numerous, dynamic and depot-dependent. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:819-840, 2017.

PMID:
28640444
DOI:
10.1002/cphy.c160027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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