Send to

Choose Destination
Nature. 2017 Jun 21;546(7659):510-513. doi: 10.1038/nature22388.

A massive, dead disk galaxy in the early Universe.

Author information

Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 32, København Ø, 2100, Denmark.
Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, F-31400 Toulouse, France.
Université Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Ens de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France.
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1320 Frenger Mall, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-8001, USA.
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany.
Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Athens, Greece.


At redshift z = 2, when the Universe was just three billion years old, half of the most massive galaxies were extremely compact and had already exhausted their fuel for star formation. It is believed that they were formed in intense nuclear starbursts and that they ultimately grew into the most massive local elliptical galaxies seen today, through mergers with minor companions, but validating this picture requires higher-resolution observations of their centres than is currently possible. Magnification from gravitational lensing offers an opportunity to resolve the inner regions of galaxies. Here we report an analysis of the stellar populations and kinematics of a lensed z = 2.1478 compact galaxy, which-surprisingly-turns out to be a fast-spinning, rotationally supported disk galaxy. Its stars must have formed in a disk, rather than in a merger-driven nuclear starburst. The galaxy was probably fed by streams of cold gas, which were able to penetrate the hot halo gas until they were cut off by shock heating from the dark matter halo. This result confirms previous indirect indications that the first galaxies to cease star formation must have gone through major changes not just in their structure, but also in their kinematics, to evolve into present-day elliptical galaxies.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center