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Med Vet Entomol. 2017 Sep;31(3):243-251. doi: 10.1111/mve.12240. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Determination of metabolic resistance mechanisms in pyrethroid-resistant and fipronil-tolerant brown dog ticks.

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Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, U.S.A.
Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, U.S.A.
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, U.S.A.
U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Cattle Tick Research Laboratory, Edinburg, TX, U.S.A.


Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host dog tick found worldwide that is able to complete its' entire lifecycle indoors. Options for the management of R. sanguineus are limited and its' control relies largely on only a few acaricidal active ingredients. Previous studies have confirmed permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in R. sanguineus populations, commonly conferred by metabolic detoxification or target site mutations. Herein, five strains of permethrin-resistant and three strains of fipronil-tolerant ticks were evaluated for metabolic resistance using synergists to block metabolic enzymes. Synergist studies were completed with triphenyl phosphate (TPP) for esterase inhibition, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) for cytochrome P450 inhibition, and diethyl maleate (DEM) for glutathione-S-transferase inhibition. Additionally, increased esterase activity was confirmed using gel electrophoresis. The most important metabolic detoxification mechanism in permethrin-resistant ticks was increased esterase activity, followed by increased cytochrome P450 activity. The inhibition of metabolic enzymes did not have a marked impact on fipronil-tolerant tick strains.


Rhipicephalus sanguineus; acaricide; cytochrome P450; esterase; permethrin; synergist

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