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J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2017 Mar 31;7(1):15-20. doi: 10.1080/20009666.2016.1264696. eCollection 2017 Jan.

Prevalence and risk factors of heart failure in the USA: NHANES 2013 - 2014 epidemiological follow-up study.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Pinnacle Health Hospitals, Harrisburg, PA, USA.
Biostatistician, Pinnacle Health Hospitals, Harrisburg, PA, USA.


Background: Heart Failure (HF) is a progressive epidemic associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Self-reported data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) provides a unique representation of individuals suffering from HF. The purpose of this study is to analyze updated NHANES 2013-2014 data to identify any changes in the prevalence and current risk factors of HF, especially given the novel lifestyles and increased medical awareness of current generations. Methods: NHANES uses a multistage probability sampling design under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Student's t-test and Chi-square test/ Fisher's exact test was used for analysis of variables. A multiple logistic regression model was used to identify statistically significant risk factors for HF. Analyses were performed with the use of SAS software, version 9.4. Results: Based on our analysis, the primary risk factor was coronary artery disease followed by hypertension, diabetes mellitus, age ≥ 65 years, and obesity. Conclusion: The findings revealed that despite improved population awareness and advancements in diagnostics and therapeutics, the same risk factors continue to persist. This provided an insight into the path towards which our resources need to be directed, so as to effectively tackle the aforementioned risk factors.


Congestive heart failure; NHANES; epidemiology; risk factors

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