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Ultrason Sonochem. 2017 Sep;38:256-270. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.03.007. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Structural evolution, growth mechanism and photoluminescence properties of CuWO4 nanocrystals.

Author information

1
PPGQ-CCN-GERATEC, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, Rua: João Cabral, N. 2231, P.O. Box 381, 64002-150 Teresina, PI, Brazil.
2
DQ-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, São Carlos, SP 13565-905, Brazil.
3
ICE-Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Otávio Japiim, P.O. Box 670, 69077-000 Manaus, AM, Brazil.
4
CCT-Universidade Federal do Maranhão, P.O. Box 322, 65080-805 São Luís, MA, Brazil.
5
Departamento de Físico-Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-060 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.
6
IFSC-Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP, Brazil.
7
PPGQ-CCN-GERATEC, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, Rua: João Cabral, N. 2231, P.O. Box 381, 64002-150 Teresina, PI, Brazil. Electronic address: laeciosc@bol.com.br.

Abstract

Copper tungstate (CuWO4) crystals were synthesized by the sonochemistry (SC) method, and then, heat treated in a conventional furnace at different temperatures for 1h. The structural evolution, growth mechanism and photoluminescence (PL) properties of these crystals were thoroughly investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns, micro-Raman spectra and Fourier transformed infrared spectra indicated that crystals heat treated and 100°C and 200°C have water molecules in their lattice (copper tungstate dihydrate (CuWO4·2H2O) with monoclinic structure), when the crystals are calcinated at 300°C have the presence of two phase (CuWO4·2H2O and CuWO4), while the others heat treated at 400°C and 500°C have a single CuWO4 triclinic structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a change in the morphological features of these crystals with the increase of the heat treatment temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution-TEM images and selected area electron diffraction were employed to examine the shape, size and structure of these crystals. Ultraviolet-Visible spectra evidenced a decrease of band gap values with the increase of the temperature, which were correlated with the reduction of intermediary energy levels within the band gap. The intense photoluminescence (PL) emission was detected for the sample heat treat at 300°C for 1h, which have a mixture of CuWO4·2H2O and CuWO4 phases. Therefore, there is a synergic effect between the intermediary energy levels arising from these two phases during the electronic transitions responsible for PL emissions.

KEYWORDS:

Clusters; CuWO(4) crystals; Photoluminescence properties; Raman spectroscopy; Sonochemistry; TEM images

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