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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jun 19;14(6). pii: E657. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14060657.

Paternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts in Northern Africans, Southeast Asians, and Central Americans.

Author information

1
Division of Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. stephaniely@ucla.edu.
2
Department of Community Health Sciences and California Center for Population Research (CCPR), UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. stephaniely@ucla.edu.
3
Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. mburg@usc.edu.
4
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. Ugonna.Ihenacho@med.usc.edu.
5
Division of Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. brindopk@usc.edu.
6
Division of Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. allyn.auslander@gmail.com.
7
Operation Smile Inc., Virginia Beach, VA 23453 USA. kmagee@operationsmile.org.
8
Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. PASanchez@chla.usc.edu.
9
Operation Smile Vietnam, Hanoi 100803, Vietnam. thihaiduc.nguyen@operationsmile.org.
10
Operation Smile Vietnam, Hanoi 100803, Vietnam. nguyen@operationsmile.org.
11
Operation Smile Philippines, Makati City 1209, Philippines. mariatangco@gmail.com.
12
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Santo Tomas, Manila 1008, Philippines. mariatangco@gmail.com.
13
Operation Smile Philippines, Makati City 1209, Philippines. jello.hernandez@gmail.com.
14
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Santo Tomas, Manila 1008, Philippines. jello.hernandez@gmail.com.
15
OperaciĆ³n Sonrisa Honduras, Tegucigalpa 11101, Honduras. Melissa.Giron@operationsmile.org.
16
Operation Smile Morocco, Casablanca 20 000, Morocco. fmahmoudi@operationsmile.org.
17
Departments of Pediatrics and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California and Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. ydeclerck@chla.usc.edu.
18
Division of Plastic & Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. WMagee@chla.usc.edu.
19
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. jane.figueiredo@cshs.org.
20
Department of Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center 8700 Beverly Blvd, Room AC1072, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. jane.figueiredo@cshs.org.

Abstract

While several studies have investigated maternal exposures as risk factors for oral clefts, few have examined paternal factors. We conducted an international multi-centered case-control study to better understand paternal risk exposures for oral clefts (cases = 392 and controls = 234). Participants were recruited from local hospitals and oral cleft repair surgical missions in Vietnam, the Philippines, Honduras, and Morocco. Questionnaires were administered to fathers and mothers separately to elicit risk factor and family history data. Associations between paternal exposures and risk of clefts were assessed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. A father's personal/family history of clefts was associated with significantly increased risk (adjusted OR: 4.77; 95% CI: 2.41-9.45). No other significant associations were identified for other suspected risk factors, including education (none/primary school v. university adjusted OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.74-2.24), advanced paternal age (5-year adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.84-1.16), or pre-pregnancy tobacco use (adjusted OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.67-1.37). Although sample size was limited, significantly decreased risks were observed for fathers with selected occupations. Further research is needed to investigate paternal environmental exposures as cleft risk factors.

KEYWORDS:

family history; oral clefts; paternal; risk factors; smoking

PMID:
28629204
PMCID:
PMC5486343
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph14060657
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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