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Bioelectromagnetics. 2017 Sep;38(6):466-473. doi: 10.1002/bem.22063. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Influence of radiofrequency-electromagnetic waves from 3rd-generation cellular phones on fertilization and embryo development in mice.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.
Department of Neurology, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.
Fukushima Global Medical Science Center, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.
Department of Biological Sciences, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3rd-generation (3G) cellular phone radiofrequency-electromagnetic wave (RF-EMW) exposure on fertilization and embryogenesis in mice. Oocytes and spermatozoa were exposed to 3G cellular phone RF-EMWs, 1.95 GHz wideband code division multiple access, at a specific absorption rate of 2 mW/g for 60 min, or to sham exposure. After RF-EMW exposure, in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection were performed. Rates of fertilization, embryogenesis (8-cell embryo, blastocyst), and chromosome aberration were compared between the combined spermatozoa and oocyte groups: both exposed, both non-exposed, one exposed, and the other non-exposed. Rates of fertilization, embryogenesis, and blastocyst formation did not change significantly across the four groups. Considering that the degree of exposure in the present study was ≥100 times greater than daily exposure of human spermatozoa and even greater than daily exposure of oocytes, the present results indicate safety of RF-EMW exposure in humans. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:466-473, 2017.


chromosomal aberration; early development; in vitro fertilization; intracytoplasmic sperm injection; mobile phone

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