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Alzheimers Dement. 2018 Jan;14(1):28-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2017.04.014. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Post-traumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among members of a health care delivery system.

Author information

1
Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
2
Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA, USA; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
3
Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA, USA.
4
Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA, USA; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: Rachel.Whitmer@kp.org.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of dementia in male veterans, but little is known in females and civilians.

METHODS:

PTSD and comorbidities were abstracted from medical records from 1/1/1996 to 12/31/2001. Dementia incidence from 1/1/2002 to 12/31/2014 in 499,844 health care members aged 60+ years over an average of 8.2 years. Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for age, demographics, and comorbidities.

RESULTS:

PTSD was associated with increased risk of dementia over an average of 8 years of follow-up (females: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-1.95; males: HR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.51-2.55). There was a two-fold risk of dementia in those with both PTSD and depression (females: HR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.66-2.59; males: HR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.47-2.91) versus those without.

DISCUSSION:

PTSD was a risk factor for dementia in both sexes, with a heightened risk in those with comorbid depression.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; Dementia; PTSD; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Sex differences

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