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Curr Med Chem. 2018;25(11):1311-1326. doi: 10.2174/0929867324666170619104105.

Lipid Oxidation Products in the Pathogenesis of Inflammation-related Gut Diseases.

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1
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin at San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A defective mucosal barrier function is the principal cause of the uncontrolled onset and progression of a number of human inflammatory gut diseases, most of which are characterized by chronic intermittent immune and inflammatory responses leading to structural intestinal damage, which can represent a potential risk for colorectal cancer development. During the active disease phase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of oxidative reactions by activated leukocytes and epithelial cells represent the main event in the intestinal inflammation.

OBJECTIVE:

Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of intestinal damage. Indeed reactive oxygen species and their oxidized by-products regulate redox-sensitive signaling pathways and transcription factors, which sustain inflammation within the intestinal layer.

METHODS:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol are the principal targets of oxidative modifications. These lipids, which are cell membrane constituents or are present in food, readily undergo non-enzymatic oxidation to form chemically-reactive species that can induce a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, programmed cell death, and proliferation.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the role of lipid oxidation products in regulating redox pathways involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation- related gut diseases. In particular, lipid peroxidation end products, such as isoprostanes and aldehydes, and cholesterol oxidation-derived oxysterols are taken into consideration. The control of oxidative damage and consequently tissue local over-production of lipid oxidation products by using specific antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules in the diet may have clinical and therapeutic benefits.

KEYWORDS:

4-hydroxynonenal; Gut; acrolein; intestinal bowel disease; isoprostanes; malondialdehyde; oxysterols; polyphenols.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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