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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Nov;217(5):610.e1-610.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.06.008. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Single-port laparoscopy in gynecologic oncology: seven years of experience at a single institution.

Author information

Division of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Louisiana State University Healthcare Network, New Orleans, LA.
Division of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.
Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.
Instituto Gyneco-Oncólogico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Obstetrics, and Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.



Single-port laparoscopy has gained popularity within minimally invasive gynecologic surgery for its feasibility, cosmetic outcomes, and safety. However, within gynecologic oncology, there are limited data regarding short-term adverse outcomes and long-term hernia risk in patients undergoing single-port laparoscopic surgery.


The objective of the study was to describe short-term outcomes and hernia rates in patients after single-port laparoscopy in a gynecologic oncology practice.


A retrospective, single-institution study was performed for patients who underwent single-port laparoscopy from 2009 to 2015. A univariate analysis was performed with χ2 tests and Student t tests; Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards determined time to hernia development.


A total of 898 patients underwent 908 surgeries with a median follow-up of 37.2 months. The mean age and body mass index were 55.7 years and 29.6 kg/m2, respectively. The majority were white (87.9%) and American Society of Anesthesiologists class II/III (95.5%). The majority of patients underwent surgery for adnexal masses (36.9%) and endometrial hyperplasia/cancer (37.3%). Most women underwent hysterectomy (62.7%) and removal of 1 or both fallopian tubes and/or ovaries (86%). Rate of adverse outcomes within 30 days, including reoperation (0.1%), intraoperative injury (1.4%), intensive care unit admission (0.4%), venous thromboembolism (0.3%), and blood transfusion, were low (0.8%). The rate of urinary tract infection was 2.8%; higher body mass index (P = .02), longer operative time (P = .02), smoking (P = .01), hysterectomy (P = .01), and cystoscopy (P = .02) increased the risk. The rate of incisional cellulitis was 3.5%. Increased estimated blood loss (P = .03) and endometrial cancer (P = .02) were independent predictors of incisional cellulitis. The rate for surgical readmissions was 3.4%; higher estimated blood loss (P = .03), longer operative time (P = .02), chemotherapy alone (P = .03), and combined chemotherapy and radiation (P < .05) increased risk. The rate of incisional hernia rate was 5.5% (n = 50) with a mean occurrence at 570.2 ± 553.3 days. Higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class (P = .04), diabetes (P < .001), hypertension (P = .043), increasing age (P = .017; hazard ratio [HR], 1.03), and body mass index (P < .001; HR, 1.08) were independent predictors for incisional hernia development. Previous abdominal surgeries (P = .24) and hand assist (P = .64) were not associated with increased risk for incisional hernia. Patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists class III/IV had a 3 year hernia rate of 12.8% (HR, 1.81). Patients with diabetes mellitus had a 3 year hernia rate of 23.0% (HR, 3.60).


In this large cohort of patients undergoing single-port laparoscopy, the incidence of short-term adverse outcomes is low. While the rate of incisional hernia was 5.5%, incidence reached 23.0% at 3 years in high-risk groups. Previous studies with short follow-up duration may underestimate the risk of hernia, especially in patients with significant comorbidities.


adverse outcomes; gynecologic oncology; incisional hernia; laparoendoscopic single-site surgery; minimally invasive surgery; single-incision laparoscopy; single-port laparoscopy

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