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Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul;106(1):27-34. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.148171. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Dietary calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; and.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea chnaha@ajou.ac.kr csshin@snu.ac.kr.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; and chnaha@ajou.ac.kr csshin@snu.ac.kr.

Abstract

Background: The role of dietary calcium intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and fracture is controversial. Most previous reports have evaluated populations with high calcium intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether high dietary calcium intake was associated with the risk of CVD, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake.Design: In a prospective cohort study beginning in 2001 in Ansung-Ansan, Korea, 2158 men and 2153 women aged >50 y were evaluated for all-cause mortality, CVD, stroke, and fractures over a median 9-y follow-up.Results: During follow-up, 242 and 100 deaths, 149 and 150 CVD events, 58 and 82 stroke events, and 211 and 292 incident fractures occurred in men and women, respectively. The first quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake were 249 mg/d (IQR: 169 mg/d) in men and 209 mg/d (IQR: 161 mg/d) in women. Both men and women with higher dietary calcium intake tended to have higher fat, protein, sodium, phosphorus, fruit, and vegetable intakes. In men, outcomes were not significantly associated with dietary calcium intake with or without adjustments, and CVD risk tended to increase with increasing energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.078 and P = 0.093 with and without adjustment, respectively). In women, CVD risk and dietary calcium intake showed a U-shaped association; the HRs (95% CIs) without adjustment relative to the first quartile were 0.71 (0.47, 1.07), 0.57 (0.36, 0.88), and 0.52 (0.33, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the values after adjustment were 0.70 (0.45, 1.07), 0.51 (0.31, 0.81), and 0.49 (0.29, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively.Conclusion: In Korean women, increased dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased CVD risk, but it did not influence the risk of stroke or fracture.

KEYWORDS:

CVD; Dietary calcium; bone fractures; mortality; stroke

PMID:
28615253
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.116.148171
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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