Send to

Choose Destination
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Aug 3;13(8):1823-1830. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1321183. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Increased humoral immunity by DNA vaccination using an α-tocopherol-based adjuvant.

Author information

a Virus Research and Development Laboratory, Department of Virus and Microbiological Special Diagnostics , Statens Serum Institut , Copenhagen , Denmark.
b Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Vaccine Adjuvant Research , Statens Serum Institut , Copenhagen , Denmark.
c Nature Technology Corporation , Lincoln , NE , USA.
d Infectious Disease Research Unit, Clinical Institute , University of Southern Denmark , Odense , Denmark.


DNA vaccines induce broad immunity, which involves both humoral and strong cellular immunity, and can be rapidly designed for novel or evolving pathogens such as influenza. However, the humoral immunogenicity in humans and higher animals has been suboptimal compared with that of traditional vaccine approaches. We tested whether the emulsion-based and α-tocopherol containing adjuvant Diluvac Forte® has the ability to enhance the immunogenicity of a naked DNA vaccine (i.e., plasmid DNA). As a model vaccine, we used plasmids encoding both a surface-exposed viral glycoprotein (hemagglutinin) and an internal non-glycosylated nucleoprotein in the Th1/Th2 balanced CB6F1 mouse model. The naked DNA (50 µg) was premixed at a 1:1 volume/volume ratio with Diluvac Forte®, an emulsion containing different concentrations of α-tocopherol, the emulsion alone or endotoxin-free phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The animals received 2 intracutaneous immunizations spaced 3 weeks apart. When combined with Diluvac Forte® or the emulsion containing α-tocopherol, the DNA vaccine induced a more potent and balanced immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG2c response, and both IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced by the adjuvant. The DNA vaccine also induced CD4+ and CD8+ vaccine-specific T cells; however, the adjuvant did not exert a significant impact. We concluded that the emulsion-based adjuvant Diluvac Forte® enhanced the immunogenicity of a naked DNA vaccine encoding influenza proteins and that the adjuvant constituent α-tocopherol plays an important role in this immunogenicity. This induction of a potent and balanced humoral response without impairment of cellular immunity constitutes an important advancement toward effective DNA vaccines.


DNA vaccine; NTC9385R; adjuvant; influenza; tocopherol

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center