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Tob Control. 2017 Dec;26(e2):e130-e133. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053479. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

Author information

Center for Health Services Research, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Public Health Policy Evaluation Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
Tobacco Control Unit, WHO Collaborating Center for Tobacco Control, Institut Català d'Oncologia-ICO, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Cancer Prevention and Control Group, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, Campus de Bellvitge, Universitat de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet del Llobregat Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Cancer Prevention Unit and WHO Collaborating Center for Tobacco Control, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
Clinic of Social and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.
European Network for Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP), Brussels, Belgium.



Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU.


We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements.


40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22).


Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years.


Advertising and Promotion; Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Media; Non-cigarette tobacco products

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