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N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 24;377(8):723-732. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615692. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Efficacy and Safety of Degludec versus Glargine in Type 2 Diabetes.

Collaborators (2427)

Hansen L, Rabøl R, Bethel A, de Lemos JA, Senn S, Schwamm L, Timmis A, Alshekhlee A, Bach RG, Bertram TM, Chaitman BR, Cruz-Flores S, Eckstein JF, Feen ES, Fisher SJ, Gosselin G, Lim MJ, Rosenzweig JL, Sherwin RS, Tobin GS, Vetrovec G, Ziemer DC, Daugaard G, Er Ö, Pollak M, Sengeløv L, Ahn YB, Amod A, Benroubi M, Boonyavarakul A, Canecki-Varzic S, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Franek E, Jinnouchi H, Khokhlov AL, Mithal A, Philis-Tsimikas A, Ong TK, Pop L, Sauque Reyna L, Rodbard HW, Roula D, Saravanan P, Sesti G, Sorli C, Sposetti G, Tinahones-Madueño FJ, Woo V, Berard L, Caballero Mateos I, Cooper A, DeLuca C, Fillary J, Abdul Rahman Gan DG, Goondiwala A, Tapia J, Busch R, Chaykin L, Hollander P, Karounos D, Lane W, Lingvay I, Odugbesan AO, Ohlson-Elliott T, Ovalle F, Pantalone KM, Phelps S, Pop-Busui R, Robertson D, Shlesinger Y, Silver R, Warren M, Arrar M, Belkheir H, Benabbas Y, Benferhat S, Benoun F, Bensalem S, Bourezane S, Elaoufi SR, Gourine M, Hadjhabib M, Hadjhamou F, Hakem J, Kaouache N, Khensal S, Kitouni Y, Lakhal L, Lezzar AK, Meftah IA, Mehenni L, Nouri N, Oumerzouk F, Sakouhi M, Talha K, Zemri Z, Caeiro G, Calveyra M, Cluigt N, Geronazzo V, Lema S, Martinez Monferran P, Oviedo A, Pozzi J, Sala J, Schindler A, Sernia V, Sicer M, Solis S, Varela P, Waitman J, Akerman Augusto G, Alves B, Alves E, Barbosa L, Bona R, Borges J, Bosco A, Canani L, Castro D, Cavalcante L, Cechin L, Cercato C, Chrisman C, Chrisman C, Cintra R, Costa G, Fontenele AP, Forti A, Francisco B, Franco D, Genestreti P, Gross J, Haddad L, Halpern A, Hissa M, Leança C, Leão B, Marinho AE, Miranda I, Nunes A, Palhares F, Poço C, Salles J, Sampaio C, Santomauro A Jr, Sartori C, Sena R, da Silva M, da Silva P, Siqueira K, Turatti L, Valenti A, Vasques E, Vencio S, Visconti G, Belanger A, Chilvers M, Dumas R, Hurd C, Lafleche F, Lam P, Martinho V, Palardy J, Peterson S, Raff E, Sinnaeve L, Sullivan D, Baraban V, Blaslov K, Bulum T, Varzic SC, Berkovic MC, Balen MJ, Kruljac I, Lesnjakovic S, Lucijanic T, Majic A, Rahelic D, Smircic-Duvnjak L, Vrkljan M, Zibar K, Zukanovic S, Athanasopoulou E, Benis A, Benroubi M, Diakoumopoulou E, Doupis J, Griva T, Kazakos K, Kypraios N, Liatis S, Makrilakis K, Markou A, Pagkalos E, Papanastasiou L, Piaditis G, Sampanis C, Siami E, Tentolouris N, Tsiama V, Zografou I, Adling P, Ali M, Anjana RM, Arora A, Ayyar V, Banerjee S, Bantwal G, Bhagwat N, Bhattacharyya A, Bhawarlal A, Chakraborty R, Chatterjee S, Chaudhury T, Chowdhury S, Damelia P, Das M, Das S, Desai A, Devru N, Farooqui K, Ganie MA, George B, Ghosh D, Girithara G, Haribhai Z, Jain N, Jassar A, Joshi A, Kale D, Kale S, Kelwade J, Khatri A, Kulshreshtha B, Majumder B, Manikath N, Margekar S, Marwah T, Mathew V, Moulick ND, Mutha A, Muthu R, Nalawade A, Narvencar K, Pandit K, Pangtey G, Parthasarathy B, Phatak S, Prakash A, Prusty P, Radhakrishnan C, Raja I, Ravikumar R, Saboo B, Sachdeva I, Sangeetha S, Selvam K, Sethi B, Shah A, Shah HK, Shah P, Shah R, Shaikh S, Shaikh S, Singh KP, Sivagnanam N, Tandon N, Thonangi R, Thulaseedharan N, Toraskar K, Varthakavi P, Yadav S, Andreozzi F, Arturi F, Antonia Baldassarre MP, Barone M, Bonura A, Bucciarelli L, Buscemi C, Buscemi S, Carnovale A, Caselli C, Ceci G, Cimino E, Colella A, Crippa V, Cufone S, D'Erasmo L, De Remigis A, Di Bartolo P, Dionisio R, Disoteo O, Fabietti M, Febo F, Filetti S, Genovese S, Ginestra F, Grancini V, Grieco E, Magistro A, Maranghi M, Monti L, Orsi E, Pellicano F, Pergolini D, Perticone F, Piatti P, Pizzi G, Rondinelli M, Rossi M, Rubino M, Setola E, Succurro E, Tarquini G, Tiseo G, Tonolo G, Villa V, Hong SV, Amano K, Hachiya R, Hieshima K, Hirao K, Hisatake T, Honda R, Ihana N, Inoue K, Iwamoto Y, Jinnouchi T, Kajiwara K, Kawazu S, Kikuchi M, Kikuchi T, Koike Y, Komatsu M, Kumakura A, Kurinami N, Kushiyama A, Maeda H, Matsuda T, Nakamura S, Nakayama K, Nishio SI, Onishi Y, Sato N, Sato Y, Shirabe S, Sugiyama S, Suzuki T, Tahara T, Takao T, Takei M, Takemoto I, Takeshige K, Tanaka K, Taniguchi S, Tsujimoto T, Tsukuda K, Wakabayashi S, Yamazaki M, Yoshida Y, Yoshimoto A, Abidin IZ, Che Abdullah ST, Adam NL, Ahmad M, Nik Ahmad NNF, Mohd Amin NH, Aw CY, Cham YL, Chong HM, Chua SK, Syed Ahmad Fauzi SAS, Yip Fong AY, Abd Ghapar AK, Hanafi N, Abu Hassan MR, Iberahim R, Khiew NZ, Keong Lee GC, Lingam R, Shien Long RC, Mahendran KA, Oon YY, Said A, Sothiratnam R, Sridhar GS, Mohd Suan MA, Tan SK, Chuan Tey JH, Undok AW, Waid A, Vijayasingham S, Voon CY, Yew KL, Yong LS, Aguilar-Parra L, Aguirre K, Alvarez-Carrillo R, Arechavaleta-Granell M, Baez-Campos A, Bayram Llamas EA, Calvo-Vargas C, Cedano-Limon M, Beltran Jaramillo TJ, Marin-Lopez JJ, Ruiz Cornejo MJ, Juarez Cervantes MC, Estevez de Alba I, Estrada Garcia R, Estrada S, Garza-Vergara M, Gonzalez-Perez R, González-Valencia C, GuerreroReyes R, Haro Ortiz JA, Hernandez Salazar E, Illescas Diaz I, Illescas Diaz J, Loredo I, Jimenez-Ramos S, Larios-Mora D, López García ME, López-Serrano J, Martinez-Nolasco B, Nuñez Marquez R, Pacheco Aranda E, Peralta-Cantu I, Perez Chagollan A, Ramírez M, Robledo Durón I, Rodriguez Briones I, Rodríguez M, Vazquez-Ceja A, Vera-Bocanegra A, Vidrio Velazquez M, Contreras Sandoval AY, Bartelik K, Bilska A, Biniszkiewicz T, Bogdanski P, Chamienia A, Cieslak-Puchalska A, Czochra W, Gajewski B, Gromniak E, Holda E, Jaskulska-Gorzelewska B, Jedynasty K, Kloda E, Kmak-Balawender B, Kobielusz-Gembala I, Konieczny M, Kramarczuk E, Kuleta J, Lesniewski R, Lominska T, Lukaszewicz M, Majewska I, Mlynarski T, Mostowy A, Rybak A, Skrypnik D, Wolny M, Zmuda W, Buduru AN, Cif A, Cozma M, Crisan C, Barbonta CG, Barbonta D, Mihalcea M, Mociran M, Muresan S, Popescu A, Pruna L, Sandu NR, Suleac OA, Vincze EC, Andreeva E, Barykina I, Bernitcyna A, Berns S, Bezdenezhnykh N, Chumachek E, Demarina S, Didenko A, Dubinina N, Dzherieva I, Elsukova O, Esenyan L, Filippova E, Gabova N, Garina I, Glikman Y, Glova S, Goncharova E, Gorbatova E, Gordeev I, Grigorian I, Gromova S, Ipatko I, Karaban E, Katushkina Y, Kaygorodtseva O, Kerova I, Khaisheva L, Khmelnitskiy O, Khokhlov A, Khokhlov M, Khorolets E, Klyuenkova E, Konovalova O, Korneva K, Kosmacheva E, Kunitsyna M, Kupriyanova T, Kuznetsova N, Lantseva O, Ledyaeva A, Lileeva E, Markovich A, Martirosian N, Maslova A, Milyukova G, Mokhova I, Nagirniak O, Nastina E, Nedogoda S, Orlova V, Otarova S, Ostapenko M, Papaskiri N, Pavlikova E, Peskov A, Petrik G, Petrov A, Petunina N, Platonov D, Poliakova Y, Potapova Z, Pribylova S, Razumovsky I, Redkin A, Rodionova T, Rudenko E, Rykalina N, Salasyuk A, Semikina T, Serebryakova I, Shanina L, Shmidt E, Sinitsina O, Smetanina S, Smirnova M, Smirnova V, Smolentseva N, Sobolev A, Soldatenkova A, Soldatova Y, Speshilova S, Startseva O, Strezhova L, Strongin L, Suplotova L, Suvorova D, Tepaeva A, Trukhina L, Tyugaeva A, Vasyutkova O, Vinokurova V, Yukhno E, Yuzhakova N, Zagrebelnaya O, Zalevskaya A, Zhukova E, Millán IA, Beltrán Romero LM, Fernández Navarro JI, Ferrer García JC, García Blasco L, García García C, García Puig J, Girbés Borrás J, Inigo Zaera P, López de la Torre M, Martínez Alfaro B, Morales Portillo C, Romero Sanchez P, Sebastián Ochoa N, Serrano Olmedo I, Tinahones Madueño F, Torres Jimenez R, Adeyemo AO, Bassa A, Bhorat A, Bhorat Q, Blacking L, Burgess L, Coetzee K, Conradie H, Cyster H, Distiller L, Ellis GC, Gani M, Gordon D, Govender P, Govender T, Govender V, Jivan D, Joffe B, Jooma Y, Kaplan H, Komati S, Kramer B, Kruger S, Landau S, Latiff G, Maritz L, Matthews P, Middlemost SJ, Ngcakani N, Nortje H, Osman Y, Padayachee T, Podgorski G, Potts J, Pretorius C, Prozesky H, Snyman H, Tayob M, Urbach D, van der Merwe M, Vorajee H, Wilson N, Wing JR, Lee JE, Ahn CH, Kim NH, Kim SH, Hwangbo Y, Ko SH, An JH, Ko SH, Lee JH, Noh JH, Ji MJ, Kim KJ, Jung CH, Kim D, Kim K, Kim LK, Kim S, Kim EK, Lee DH, Cho YM, Moon SJ, Oh CM, Hong AR, Park KS, Yun JS, Hong JW, Kim HY, Buranapin S, Deerochanawong C, Hengjeerajarus N, Kosachunhanun N, Kuanprasert S, Kunavisarut T, Laortanakul R, Mangklabruks A, Phornphutkul M, Prasitdamrong H, Snabboon T, Sriwijitkamol A, Suwanwalaikorn S, Tantiwong P, Tejavanija S, Vorasettakarnkit Y, Alasabbagh S, Bagais C, Bingley P, Borthwick L, Brett B, Davidson S, Ewing J, Garesse R, Gillani S, Gkastaris K, Herring R, Illsley G, Johnson A, Kaplan F, Lonnen K, Malcolm E, McCrimmon R, Mcknight J, Nair R, Patel V, Pearson E, Raghavan R, Raj S, Russell-Jones D, Sampson M, Singh B, Sukamer N, Turner J, Venkataraman H, Viljoen A, Wake D, Barnes C, Boyd G, Childress G, Coleman D, Combs J, Davis L, Davison K, DeAtkine D, Dunaway L, Duncan J, Hibbard N, Martin M, Nichols M, Painter K, Perkins T, Quinney R, Raymond K, Roney C, Sanchez G, Sosnowchik J, Sultan F, Talley S, Trippe B, Tuck P, Vaughan T, Warriner A, Watts T, Williams H, Abidov A, Abidov Y, Anderson C, Avila V, Baraniak J, Berry B, Bessette L, Blackwell G, Burrows J, Caldron M, Chang CA, Collins E, Crawford M, Delfin K, De'Loera J, Dokken B, Feld L, Gill R, Gordon J, Gordon R, Gullick N, Gutierrez D, Harrison L, Haught A, Hemmila K, Hendrickson D, Horsley C, Hsu C, Jerrell M, Kertesz B, Khananisho P, Lenzmeier S, Lenzmeier T, Lipschitz B, Lonquist M, Mather D, Miceli M, Norris G, Padilla AM, Petersen D, Riffer E, Scott S, Sheridan K, Smith M, Stump C, Thomson S, Torok E, Vesely K, Vincent T, Wilson C, Wilson S, Agarwal M, Appleberry K, Barden MG, Brickell L, Bravo E, Cassis C, Covington B, Devine D, Dishongh K, Dugger J, Evans L, Francis S, Johnson D, Koneru K, Kurck S, Lingisetty C, Menke J, Miller B, Montgomery C, Nimmo T, Pace D, Pellegrino R, Rose J, Straub K, Stubbs A, Thomas L, Thrasher J, Thrasher L, Wijewardane P, Williamson K, Acevedo L, Ahmad A, Andresen T, Anderson-Berman N, Ayele E, Baker J, Banares A, Barsalou T, Becker S, Benavidez J, Benitez G, Bernstein R, Bhasker K, Blain A, Blustin J, Bughi S, Carney K, Castro G, Catangay J, Chambers J, Chan E, Chang A, Chang A, Chavous D Jr, Chen C, Chiu K, Chochinov R, Chu J, Cleghorn M, Cohen-Gadol S, Cokely D, Collins M, Collins Y, Colomy C, Cruz-Corona Y, Cunnea V, Dailey G, Dang A, Dang T, De La Luz M, Delgadillo R, Delgado M, Desta T, Doriguzzi D, Dulgeroff A, Einhorn D, Emery P, Figueroa M, Fink R, Flowe C, Flowers F, Fregosi J, Garcia G, Garcia M, Gaudiani L, Gawad M, Ghattas S, Gilroy C, Gonzalez V, Gonzalez Y, Guadron-Hernandez L, Ha T, Haas T, Harbison J, Hernandez G, Hernandez R, Herrera N, Ho V, Hsu K, Humphries D, Huynh V, Jacobs S, Jardula M, Jarman C, Kabongo M, Kafri H, Kaplan R, Kim G, Kobayashi G, Korff G, Kowalick A, Levin E, Lewis E, Lisovskiy S, Luu H, Malkhassian D, Maletz L, Martinez G, Martinez G, Martinez-Miss S, McCallum J, Melikian G, Metcalf F, Michlin B, Michlin S, Mitchell A, Moattari AR, Montano-Pereira C, Moon M, Naderi B, Nagata J, Nguyen C, Norwood P, Garcia SO, Olsen S, Pardino A, Parkes K, Pascal A, Patel M, Paulson C, Pernia K, Perez M, Pham D, Presant L, Preston K, Reeves L, Richards J, Rios-Santiago J, Risser J, Rodriguez S, Rosal R, Rosenblit P, Rosero R, Sadler C, Samoa R, Sanchez L, Schaeffer C, Schwartz A, Scott C, Scott C, Scott C, Shartel JA, Shaw S, Sivalingam K, Sligh S, Sligh T, Smith B, Soler D, Spencer T, Stalters S, Stone J, Szlachcic Y, Thorsell A, Tu Z, Unger J, Vela T, Walton A, Whittle J, Wilson LE, Wing Z, Wright P, Wyman S, Yao N, Zlock D, Baker C, Bakkum R, Bird CD, Carangi G, Cohen K, Daza-Taylor K, Diesburg-Stanwood A, Douglass S, Finck L, Karaboitis K, Kerstein H, Lesh K, Loesch R, McClure L, Nevarez M, Pavol B, Rasouli N, Rockler B, Sanagorski R, Solano R, Underkofler C, Van Winkle R, Weiss S, White K, Wirtemburg P, Zarrabi L, Zemel L, Barchini G, Casagni K, Cordisco ME, Davis A, Duffy-Hidalgo B, Huntley R, McNicol D, Miller N, Mukwaya M, Northrup P, Platt J, Rabideau D, Randolph P, Rose S, Samuel J, Savino R, Soufer J, Torello C, Abinader A, Agosto M, Aguirre F, Alexander L, Almanza O, Alvarez D, Anees M, Aqua K, Arazo L, Asberry C, Ashley A, Balentine T, Barta M, Bertot I, Binns-Leon M, Borello N, Bostick J, Boucher L, Braddy D, Breton C, Broxton B, Burke D, Cabielles T, Calderon J, Canaan Y, Canelon G, Cardona J, Castillo-Gonzalez S, Castro K, Chacon J, Chehade J, Church L, Cohen L, Crews E, Cromer C, Cromer M, Cuello J, Cusi K, de Leon K, Delgado E, Delima S, Denson J, DeVries B, Diaz M, Digon B, Dowell M, Dunn K, Ellington D, Emerick G, Encarnacion F, Ezell L, Fahmie A, Fernandez N, Figueredo R, Flores P, Fonseca J, Freeman A, Freeman E, Frias J, Garcia L, Geronilla G, Hamilton M, Hanabergh R, Hanson L, Harris K, Hasan S, Hendrick M, Hicks M, Hoffman L, Holt A, Hutchinson R, Iparraguirre H, Janicka A, Janovitz R, Jones D, Jones S, Kaplun P, Kelijman M, Kersey A, Khan A, Khan M, Kirk G, Konwai A, Kovar M, Kutner M, Lafaille J, Leach D, Levenson D, Lewy-Alterbaum L, Light T, Lo M, Loman L, Long S, Love J, Madera A, Magee J, Mallitz M, Marquez F, Marshall R, Mary J, Mateu J, McKenzie L, McKenzie R, McKenzie W, Mendelson R, Mendez J, Merlos L, Mierau J, Miller R, Miranda-Palma B, Montoya C, Navarro E, Neller C, Nossa J, Osborn T, Parrillo J, Patel B, Penabad J, Perez G, Pineda D, Pinero-Pilona A, Platt G, Prestwood E, Quintero L, Rengifo R, Reyes D, Rivas A, Rivero M, Robinson S, Robison D, Rodriguez D, Rodriguez I, Rodriguez T, Rosario C, Rosenwasser R, Roura M, Schramm E, Schramm R, Schweppe L, Segel S, Sepulveda M, Sheets L, Shields K, Sheridan R, Silva R, Smith K, Smith M, Somerstein C, Solano M, Suarez M, Suarez O, Suarez R, Suarez V, Sultan S, Sutton D, Szilagyi I, Thorne M, Travaglini S, Trevino M, Uriarte O, Vizcaino L, Wadud K, Wehmeier K, Weinstein D, Welch C, White A, White B, Williams T, Williamson C, Zwick L, Adams C, Arkin D, Bode B, Bonner S, Bonner W, Bowen D, Bradley B, Bradley P, Brennan E, Brown C, Brown D, Burgess E, Collett T, Cook J, Corse S, Dukes K, Durrence J, Dutton R, Estes S, Falcone L, Gaskin D, Gaskin K, Goswami K, Hart M, Jester D, Kies S, Leiker A, Lu P, Mahakala A, Maher M, Miller A, Miller T, Munoz M, Musto M, Odugbesan A, Olson D, Osborn N, Pace K, Pajkovic G, Paulus C, Phillips L, Reddick W, Reed J, Rowe S, Sadler B, Sapp T, Savoye L, Shore D, Shuman S, Sittle J, Standard S, Wardell K, Workman A, Carreira T, Fitz-Patrick D, Hean V, Limcolioc A, Nihei M, Park Y, Pau C, Shannon L, Trotter A, Williams S, Coughenour T, Liljenquist J, Vance C, Williams J, Agaiby E, Agaiby J, Argo K, Azad N, Backus A, Bartlett A, Bellucci-Jackson J, Boncu O, Brodt P, Carlson H, Collins K, Delibasic M, Dor I, Dukett M, Emanuele N, Gabel F, Giardino A, Hoelzer D, Hsieh A, Jayaramaiah P, Kearney T, Kelley K, Kravarusic J, Lawless A, Maheshwari H, Martin E, McCall L, Mikell F, Nallala D, Said S, Sakla N, Schiferi J, Smith P, Stokes J, Sugimoto D, Sugimoto M, Swan D, Alfata S, Beavins J, Bogardus C, Bogardus D, Calvert B, Calvin K, Carlton K, Condit J, Cornett G, Covert C, Dela Llana A, Dixon R, Felker D, Fogle S, Harris L, Hoebeke RE, Hyde D, Johnson T, Johnston K, King J, Lang A, Maynard K, McDaniel V, McGrath C, Moretto T, Ndukwu I, O'Connor L, O'Connor T, Oliver T, Overmars S, Patel M, Patterson G, Powell T, Raphael A, Raphael R, Reedy M, Reyes HS, Ridge T, Rutherford MS, Sebastian M, Shaeffer L, Sheets M, Thomas K, Trueblood N, Tucker T, White A, Wooldridge E, Wright A, Zapinski D, Cieloha M, Coker C, Fletcher C, Kay J, Larsen K, Marar I, Motz Z, Paul J, Pokorski A, Rabadi-Marar D, Scheideler K, Sobczyk J, Sweeney K, Brink N, Buth D, Grimes K, Lakin G, Loewen B, Secrist N, Simon W, Steere D, Talbot K, Wheeler C, Derick D, Armour W, Asher W, Bays H, Behl N, Conn B, Dye L, Earl J, Farris N, Figueroa S, Fruit O, Hobbs C, Howard K, Jackson T, Kain A, Karounos C, Keiran S, Kennedy R, King K, Krishnasamy S, Lambdin W, Micklewright G, Mokshagundam S, Mooney S, Moore M, Morgan D, Morley R, Newsome S, Nichols J, Nims D, Nockerts N, Oremus R, Ritchey BM, Shelton C, Smith D, Walker D, Weiter K, Whitehead R, Wood R, Woodruff R, Young JD, Alper A, Berry M, Gauthier N, Griffin C, Haynes E, Lawrence J, McCormack T, Midyett C, Rangaraj U, Smith W, Stricker M, Tandron I, Vargas R, Wagner M, Albert M, Baillargeon G, Stephens J, Aroda V, Dempsey M, Junker H, Lopez M, Shepard M, Ciccarelli C, Datu J, Gallagher-Dorval K, Hartigan C, Kowaloff E, Lock JP, Rosano N, Shaw B, Thompson M, Abbo C, Anton S, Baker L, Bhan A, Karla K, Boley B, Bonema J, Carlin T, Nancy N, Dandois B, Dermyer A, Dubeck J, Elkins J, Ferris P, Fraser N, Kozma JG, Gasparovich D, Grodman R, Hampson J, Hewitt M, Hiatt J, Hopkins A, Howard J, Joliat J, Joliat J, Kalt S, Katzman S, Kogelman J, Kruger D, Kurkowski A, Lambert J, Levcovici E, Lockwood K, Lumberg M, McMullen L, Meyers P, Minto C, Nelson T, Neuner G, Nurmi K, Perkins J, Plunkett C, Ruoff G, Samantray J, Sawah A, Secord S, Seyoum B, Sherman S, Simpson M, Sinkoff M, Skoney J, Small J, Szerlong H, Tinetti T, Toomey A, VanDerWerff H, Whitehouse F, Wilkins R, Wolf S, Yarows S, Eldred E, Hester K, Huling R, Moore K, Preslar K, Proge N, Smith L, Young G, Bybee K, Carr G, Case C, Forker A, Goeke L, Kocher D, Lin O, Littlefield J, Mendoza R, Moore M, Oberhaus B, Reed L, Rutherford C, Springer B, Windsor S, Ackerman K, Christensen R, De Souza J, Douglas K, Hrncirik T, Lefkowicz M, McDonnell L, Severa L, Tjaden J, Ward L, Addison S, Anderson R, Baker C, Baum R, Belitz J, Boerner S, Desouza C, Drincic A, Fitzgibbons W, Francis J, Garvin M, Goldner W, Goodrich M, Grubbs L, Hatcher T, Hochstein R, Hunter C, Keuchel J, Konigsberg S, Kuechenmeister L, Mack L, McKnight T, Hanna H, Mitchell J, Mitchell J, Moeller J, Montanez E, Montoya P, Nemecek T, Neumeister A, Newcomb J, Pracht S, Radke K, Rahman J, Renter S, Reynolds J, Rodriguez MG, Satorie J, Schiermann L, Severson M, Shivaswamy V, Snyder J, Tillson R, Vasey A, Wahl T, Weeks W, Wolf T, Woodruff M, Alvarez I, Bowers R, Cala-Anaya F, Castellanos-Rodriguez R, Christopher J, Concepcion G, Evensen E, Fernandez D, Ghanem P, Harmon N, Kaiser H, Kaplan W, Klugh S, Le N, Lehrner S, Lopez R, Martin 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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Degludec is an ultralong-acting, once-daily basal insulin that is approved for use in adults, adolescents, and children with diabetes. Previous open-label studies have shown lower day-to-day variability in the glucose-lowering effect and lower rates of hypoglycemia among patients who received degludec than among those who received basal insulin glargine. However, data are lacking on the cardiovascular safety of degludec.

METHODS:

We randomly assigned 7637 patients with type 2 diabetes to receive either insulin degludec (3818 patients) or insulin glargine U100 (3819 patients) once daily between dinner and bedtime in a double-blind, treat-to-target, event-driven cardiovascular outcomes trial. The primary composite outcome in the time-to-event analysis was the first occurrence of an adjudicated major cardiovascular event (death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) with a prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.3. Adjudicated severe hypoglycemia, as defined by the American Diabetes Association, was the prespecified, multiplicity-adjusted secondary outcome.

RESULTS:

Of the patients who underwent randomization, 6509 (85.2%) had established cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or both. At baseline, the mean age was 65.0 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 16.4 years, and the mean (±SD) glycated hemoglobin level was 8.4±1.7%; 83.9% of the patients were receiving insulin. The primary outcome occurred in 325 patients (8.5%) in the degludec group and in 356 (9.3%) in the glargine group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.06; P<0.001 for noninferiority). At 24 months, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 7.5±1.2% in each group, whereas the mean fasting plasma glucose level was significantly lower in the degludec group than in the glargine group (128±56 vs. 136±57 mg per deciliter, P<0.001). Prespecified adjudicated severe hypoglycemia occurred in 187 patients (4.9%) in the degludec group and in 252 (6.6%) in the glargine group, for an absolute difference of 1.7 percentage points (rate ratio, 0.60; P<0.001 for superiority; odds ratio, 0.73; P<0.001 for superiority). Rates of adverse events did not differ between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events, degludec was noninferior to glargine with respect to the incidence of major cardiovascular events. (Funded by Novo Nordisk and others; DEVOTE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01959529 .).

PMID:
28605603
PMCID:
PMC5731244
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1615692
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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