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J Occup Environ Hyg. 2017 Sep;14(9):712-719. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2017.1316387.

Association between exposure to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) and urinary metabolite 2-chlorohippuric acid in U.S. Army Mask Confidence Training.

Author information

1
a Naval Hospital , Yokosuka , Japan.
2
b Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences , Bethesda , Maryland.
3
c Army Medical Department Center & School , Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
4
d Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Division of Laboratory Sciences , Atlanta , Georgia.

Abstract

This study was conducted among U.S. Army soldiers to evaluate the association between exposure to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) and urinary metabolite 2-chlorohippuric acid (CHA) detected in test subjects (n = 87) after completion of Mask Confidence Training. CS exposures ranged 0.086-4.9 mg/m³ ([Formula: see text] = 2.7 mg/m³). CHA levels (corrected for creatinine) at 2-, 8-, 24-, and 30-hr post-exposure resulted in ranges of 94.6-1120 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 389 µg/g-cr), 15.80-1170 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 341 µg/g-cr), 4.00-53.1 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 19.3 µg/g-cr), and 1.99-28.4 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 10.6 µg/g-cr), respectively. Spearman's correlation revealed CHA levels strongly correlated with time sampled (r = -0.748, p < 0.05) and weakly correlated with CS concentration (r = 0.270, p < 0.05). A linear relationship was observed between CHA, CS concentration, and time of urine sample according to the following regression equation: ln(CHA, μg/g-cr) = 5.423 + 0.316 (CS conc., mg/m³) - 0.002 (time sampled), (R = 0.910, R² = 0.827, p < 0.05). This relationship suggests that CHA has the potential to be an effective retrospective indicator of CS exposure in future biomarker developments.

KEYWORDS:

2-chlorohippuric acid; CS riot control agent; biomarker; mask confidence training; o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile; tear gas

PMID:
28604270
DOI:
10.1080/15459624.2017.1316387
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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