Send to

Choose Destination
Inquiry. 2017 Jan 1;54:46958017707296. doi: 10.1177/0046958017707296.

Developing High-Functioning Teams: Factors Associated With Operating as a "Real Team" and Implications for Patient-Centered Medical Home Development.

Author information

1 Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Cambridge, MA, USA.
2 Cambridge Health Alliance, MA, USA.
3 Institute for Community Health, Malden, MA, USA.
4 Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
5 Health Resources in Action, Boston, MA, USA.
6 Allegheny County Health Department, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
7 University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, PA, USA.


Team-based care is a foundation of health care redesign models like the patient-centered medical home (PCMH). Yet few practices rigorously examine how the implementation of PCMH relates to teamwork. We identified factors associated with the perception of a practice operating as a real team. An online workforce survey was conducted with all staff of 12 primary care sites of Cambridge Health Alliance at different stages of PCMH transformation. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with teamwork perceptions were conducted. In multivariate models, having effective leadership was the main factor associated with practice teamwork perceptions (odds ratio [OR], 10.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.39-20.43); in addition, practicing at a site in an intermediate stage of PCMH transformation was also associated with enhanced team perceptions (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.28-4.64). In a model excluding effective leadership, respondents at sites in an intermediate stage of PCMH transformation (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4) and who had higher care team behaviors (such as huddles and weekly meetings; OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.30-8.92), higher care team perceptions (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.15-6.11), and higher job satisfaction (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.02-3.92) had higher practice teamwork perceptions. This study highlights the strong association between effective leadership, care team behaviors and perceptions, and job satisfaction with perceptions that practices operate as real teams. Although we cannot infer causality with these cross-sectional data, this study raises the possibility that providing attention to these factors may be important in augmenting practice teamwork perceptions.


PCMH; high-functioning; team; team-based care

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center