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Emotion. 2018 Feb;18(1):75-93. doi: 10.1037/emo0000302. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Universals and cultural variations in 22 emotional expressions across five cultures.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Yale University.
2
Department of Psychology, Cambridge University.
3
Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley.
4
Department of Psychology, Karnatak University of Dharwad.
5
Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles.

Abstract

We collected and Facial Action Coding System (FACS) coded over 2,600 free-response facial and body displays of 22 emotions in China, India, Japan, Korea, and the United States to test 5 hypotheses concerning universals and cultural variants in emotional expression. New techniques enabled us to identify cross-cultural core patterns of expressive behaviors for each of the 22 emotions. We also documented systematic cultural variations of expressive behaviors within each culture that were shaped by the cultural resemblance in values, and identified a gradient of universality for the 22 emotions. Our discussion focused on the science of new expressions and how the evidence from this investigation identifies the extent to which emotional displays vary across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record.

PMID:
28604039
DOI:
10.1037/emo0000302

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