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Chemosphere. 2017 Oct;184:253-260. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.048. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media and iodinated trihalomethanes in an aquatic environment.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address: xlhu@tongji.edu.cn.

Abstract

Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) in a real aquatic environment have been rarely documented. In this paper, some ICM were proven to be strongly correlated with I-DBPs through investigation of five ICM and five iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) in surface water and two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total ICM concentrations in Taihu Lake and the Huangpu River ranged from 88.7 to 131 ng L-1 and 102-252 ng L-1, respectively. While the total I-THM concentrations ranged from 128 to 967 ng L-1 in Taihu Lake and 267-680 ng L-1 in the Huangpu River. Iohexol, the dominant ICM, showed significant positive correlation (p < 0.01) with CHClI2 in Taihu Lake. Iopamidol and iomeprol correlated positively (p < 0.01) with some I-THMs in the Huangpu River. The observed pronounced correlations between ICM and I-THMs indicated that ICM play an important role in the formation of I-THMs in a real aquatic environment. Characteristics of the I-THM species distributions indicated that I-THMs may be transformed by natural conditions. Both DWTPs showed negligible removal efficiencies for total ICM (<20%). Strikingly high concentrations of total I-THMs were observed in the finished water (2848 ng L-1 in conventional DWTP and 356 ng L-1 in advanced DWTP). Obvious transformation of ICM to I-THMs was observed during the chlorination and ozonization processes in DWTPs. We suggest that ICM is an important source for I-DBP formation in the real aquatic environment.

KEYWORDS:

Distribution; Iodinated X-ray contrast media; Iodinated trihalomethanes; Relevance; Surface water; Transformation

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