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Clin J Gastroenterol. 2017 Aug;10(4):297-311. doi: 10.1007/s12328-017-0754-z. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Endoscopic management of biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation.

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Miyuki Clinic, 1-8-3 Renko-ji, Tama, Tokyo, 2060021, Japan.
Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan.


Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an effective alternative to deceased liver transplantation (DDLT) for end-stage liver disease. Although advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive management, and post-transplant care have improved the overall outcomes of LDLT, biliary strictures remain the major unsolved problem. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is currently considered the first-line therapy for biliary strictures following LDLT with duct-to-duct reconstruction, with percutaneous and surgical interventions reserved for patients with unsuccessful management via ERCP. Endoscopic management of biliary strictures is technically more challenging in LDLT than in DDLT because of the complexity of the biliary anastomosis, in addition to the tortuous and angulated biliary system. Placement of one or more plastic stents after balloon dilation has been the standard strategy for post-LDLT stricture, but this requires multiple stent exchange to prevent stent occlusion until stricture resolution. Inside stents might prevent duodenobiliary reflux and thus have longer stent patency, obviating the need for multiple ERCPs. Newly developed covered self-expandable metallic stents with anti-migration systems are alternatives to the placement of multiple plastic stents. With the advent of deep enteroscopy, biliary strictures in LDLT patients with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy are now treatable endoscopically. In this review, we discuss the short- and long-term outcomes of endoscopic management of post-LDLT strictures as well as recent advances in this field.


Biliary complication; Biliary stent; Biliary stricture; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Living donor liver transplantation

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