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Environ Int. 2017 Sep;106:53-59. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.05.023. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Peripubertal blood lead levels and growth among Russian boys.

Author information

1
Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: jburns@hsph.harvard.edu.
2
Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
3
Pediatric Endocrine Division, Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 N Lake Avenue, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
4
Institute for Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, 47 Nakhimovsky Prosp, Moscow 117418, Russia.
5
Department of Genomics and Human Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina Str. 3, Moscow 119333, Russia; Chapaevsk Medical Association, Meditsinskaya Str., 3a, Chapaevsk, Samara Region 446100, Russia.
6
Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
7
Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Childhood blood lead levels (BLL) have been associated with growth impairment.

OBJECTIVES:

We assessed associations of peripubertal BLL with adolescent growth and near adult height in a longitudinal cohort of Russian boys.

METHODS:

481 boys were enrolled at ages 8-9years and followed annually to age 18. At enrollment, BLL was measured, and height, weight, and pubertal staging were obtained annually during 10years of follow-up. Mixed effects models were used to assess the associations of BLL with longitudinal age-adjusted World Health OrganizationZ-scores for height (HT-Z) and body mass index (BMI-Z), and annual height velocity (HV). Interactions between boys' age and BLL on growth outcomes were evaluated.

RESULTS:

The median (range) BLL was 3.0 (0.5-31.0) μg/dL. At age 18years, 79% of boys had achieved near adult height (HV <1.0cm/year), and means (SD) for HT-Z and BMI-Z were 0.15 (0.92) and -0.32 (1.24). Over 10years of follow-up, after covariate adjustment, boys with higher (≥5μg/dL) BLL compared with lower BLL were shorter (adjusted mean difference in HT-Z=-0.43, 95% CI -0.60, -0.25, p-value <0.001), translating to a 2.5cm lower height at age 18years. The decrement in height for boys with higher BLL was most pronounced at 12 to 15years of age (interaction p=0.03). Boys with higher BLL were leaner (adjusted mean difference in BMI-Z=-0.22, 95% CI: -0.45, 0.01, p=0.06).

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher peripubertal BLLs were associated with shorter height through age 18years, suggesting a persistent effect of lead on linear growth.

KEYWORDS:

Body mass index; Childhood growth; Children; Height; Lead; Metals

PMID:
28599171
PMCID:
PMC5561550
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2017.05.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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