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PLoS One. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178476. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178476. eCollection 2017.

Non-invasive transmission of sensorimotor information in humans using an EEG/focused ultrasound brain-to-brain interface.

Lee W1,2, Kim S3, Kim B3, Lee C3, Chung YA1, Kim L3, Yoo SS1,2,3.

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Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, Korea.
Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.
Center for Bionics, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea.


We present non-invasive means that detect unilateral hand motor brain activity from one individual and subsequently stimulate the somatosensory area of another individual, thus, enabling the remote hemispheric link between each brain hemisphere in humans. Healthy participants were paired as a sender and a receiver. A sender performed a motor imagery task of either right or left hand, and associated changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8-10 Hz) originating from either hemisphere were programmed to move a computer cursor to a target that appeared in either left or right of the computer screen. When the cursor reaches its target, the outcome was transmitted to another computer over the internet, and actuated the focused ultrasound (FUS) devices that selectively and non-invasively stimulated either the right or left hand somatosensory area of the receiver. Small FUS transducers effectively allowed for the independent administration of stimulatory ultrasonic waves to somatosensory areas. The stimulation elicited unilateral tactile sensation of the hand from the receiver, thus establishing the hemispheric brain-to-brain interface (BBI). Although there was a degree of variability in task accuracy, six pairs of volunteers performed the BBI task in high accuracy, transferring approximately eight commands per minute. Linkage between the hemispheric brain activities among individuals suggests the possibility for expansion of the information bandwidth in the context of BBI.

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