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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jun 9;14(6). pii: E622. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14060622.

How Social Reactions to Alcohol-Related Facial Flushing Are Affected by Gender, Relationship, and Drinking Purposes: Implications for Education to Reduce Aerodigestive Cancer Risks.

Author information

1
Nebraska Prevention Center for Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA. inewman1@unl.edu.
2
Nebraska Prevention Center for Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA. dinglanyan@gmail.com.
3
Nebraska Prevention Center for Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA. dshell2@unl.edu.
4
Department of Psychology in Education, School of Education, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. lil85@pitt.edu.

Abstract

Alcohol-related facial flushing is a sign of compromised alcohol metabolism and increased risk of certain cancers. This project examined how facial flushing might be used to reduce alcohol use to lower cancer risks. Interviews with Chinese university students identified gender, friendship, and drinking purpose as important variables related to whether someone would encourage a person who flushes when drinking alcohol to stop or reduce their drinking. A questionnaire was developed that incorporated these variables into 24 drinking scenarios in which someone flushed while drinking. Students responded whether they would (a) encourage the flusher to stop or drink less; (b) do nothing while wishing they could; or (c) do nothing because there was no need. Analysis of survey responses from 2912 university students showed a three-way interaction of the variables and implied that the probability students will intervene when a drinker flushes was highest when the flusher was a female, a close friend, and the drinking purpose was for fun and lowest if the flusher was a male, the friendship was general, and the drinking purpose was risky. The results provide important details about the social factors affecting how other people respond to a person who flushes when drinking alcohol. This information is useful for those considering ways to reduce and prevent aerodigestive cancers through education and information programs.

KEYWORDS:

ALD; ALDH; China; alcohol; drinking; flushing; university students

PMID:
28598388
PMCID:
PMC5486308
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph14060622
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Lida Lin and Lanyan Ding declare no conflicts of interest. Duane F. Shell has consulted for the National Institute for Health Education, Chinese CDC, and received an honorarium and travel support. In the past five years, Duane F. Shell has received university employment-related funding through grants from the U.S. Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Energy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Office of Research, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, the Nebraska Department of Roads/Office of Highway Safety, and the Association of Performing Arts Presenters. He has received private consulting funds from the Buffalo Beach Company, Lincoln, NE, and the St. Elizabeth Foundation, Lincoln, NE. Prior to 2014, Ian Newman was a member of the Research Advisory Committee of the International Center for Alcohol Policies, Washington, D.C. Prior to 2014, he received fees and travel support to attend meetings sponsored or co-sponsored by the International Center for Alcohol Policies. Prior to 2013, Ian Newman consulted for the National Health Education Institute, Chinese CDC, and the Chinese Center for Health Education (CCHE). In the past five years, he has received University of Nebraska employment-related funding from the U.S. Department of Education, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, the Nebraska Department of Roads/Nebraska Office of Highway Safety. As the American deputy director of the American Exchange Center at Xi’an Jiaotong University, Newman received funds from the U.S. State Department and the University of Nebraska. Ian Newman owns an equity interest in The Buffalo Beach Company (Lincoln, Nebraska) and has received consulting fees from The Buffalo Beach Company for independent research on indigenous alcohol use and traffic safety.

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