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Antiviral Res. 2017 Aug;144:223-246. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.06.001. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Zika in the Americas, year 2: What have we learned? What gaps remain? A report from the Global Virus Network.

Author information

1
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
2
Center for AIDS Research, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
4
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
5
Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
6
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.
7
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, MD, 21702, USA.
8
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
9
Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
10
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; Institut Pasteur, Biology of Infection Unit and INSERM Unit 1117, France; Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Necker- Enfants Malades University Hospital, Institut Imagine, Paris, France.
11
Department of Pathology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
12
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
13
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA.
14
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore.
15
Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
16
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
17
Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz and Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
18
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
19
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; Center for AIDS Research, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
20
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Pathology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
21
Department of Pathology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
22
Global Virus Network, 725 West Lombard St., Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address: sweaver@utmb.edu.

Abstract

In response to the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the Western Hemisphere and the recognition of a causal association with fetal malformations, the Global Virus Network (GVN) assembled an international taskforce of virologists to promote basic research, recommend public health measures and encourage the rapid development of vaccines, antiviral therapies and new diagnostic tests. In this article, taskforce members and other experts review what has been learned about ZIKV-induced disease in humans, its modes of transmission and the cause and nature of associated congenital manifestations. After describing the make-up of the taskforce, we summarize the emergence of ZIKV in the Americas, Africa and Asia, its spread by mosquitoes, and current control measures. We then review the spectrum of primary ZIKV-induced disease in adults and children, sites of persistent infection and sexual transmission, then examine what has been learned about maternal-fetal transmission and the congenital Zika syndrome, including knowledge obtained from studies in laboratory animals. Subsequent sections focus on vaccine development, antiviral therapeutics and new diagnostic tests. After reviewing current understanding of the mechanisms of emergence of Zika virus, we consider the likely future of the pandemic.

KEYWORDS:

Antiviral therapy; Arbovirus; Congenital manifestations; Maternal-fetal transmission; Vaccines; Zika virus

PMID:
28595824
PMCID:
PMC5920658
DOI:
10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.06.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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