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Immunotherapy. 2017 Jun;9(7):607-616. doi: 10.2217/imt-2016-0142.

Immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer: present and future.

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UO Oncologia, Poliambulanza Foundation, Via Bissolati 57, 25124 Brescia, Italy.


Despite the identification of some efficient drugs for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer, this tumor remains one of the most lethal cancers and is characterized by a strong resistance to therapies. Pancreatic cancer has some unique features including the presence of a microenvironment filled with immunosuppressive mediators and a dense stroma, which is both a physical barrier to drug penetration and a dynamic entity involved in immune system control. Therefore, the immune system has been hypothesized to play an important role in pancreatic cancer. Thus, therapies acting on innate or adaptive immunity are being investigated. Here, we review the literature, report the most interesting results and hypothesize future treatment directions.


immunotherapy; pancreatic cancer; vaccines

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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