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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jun 8;14(6). pii: E618. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14060618.

Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

Author information

1
Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. annemarie.ruijsbroek@rivm.nl.
2
Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center (AMC), University of Amsterdam, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.droomers@amc.uva.nl.
3
Centre for Sustainability, Environment and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Hanneke.kruize@rivm.nl.
4
Centre for Sustainability, Environment and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Elise.van.kempen@rivm.nl.
5
Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research, Staffordshire University, Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2DF, UK. C.Gidlow@staffs.ac.uk.
6
Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research, Staffordshire University, Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2DF, UK. G.L.Hurst@staffs.ac.uk.
7
Vytauto Didžiojo Universitetas, 44248 Kaunas, Lithuania. S.Andrusaityte@gmf.vdu.lt.
8
ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), E-08003 Barcelona, Spain. mark.nieuwenhuijsen@isglobal.org.
9
University Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08002 Barcelona, Spain. mark.nieuwenhuijsen@isglobal.org.
10
CIBER Epidemiology y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), 08036 Barcelona, Spain. mark.nieuwenhuijsen@isglobal.org.
11
Department of Social and Organisational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Vrije Universiteit (VU), 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. jolandamaas@hotmail.com.
12
Department of Criminology, Criminal Law and Social Law, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Wim.Hardyns@UGent.be.
13
Faculty of Law, University of Antwerp, 2000 Antwerpen, Belgium. Wim.Hardyns@UGent.be.
14
Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center (AMC), University of Amsterdam, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands. k.stronks@amc.uva.nl.
15
NIVEL (Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research), 3500 BN Utrecht, The Netherlands. p.groenewegen@nivel.nl.
16
Department of Human Geography and Department of Sociology, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands. p.groenewegen@nivel.nl.

Abstract

It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

KEYWORDS:

European cities; general health; green space; mental health; subpopulations

PMID:
28594390
PMCID:
PMC5486304
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph14060618
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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