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Nat Rev Neurosci. 2017 Jul;18(7):435-450. doi: 10.1038/nrn.2017.62. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Non-motor features of Parkinson disease.

Author information

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University College London (UCL) Institute of Neurology, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK.
National Parkinson Foundation International Centre of Excellence, King's College Hospital, King's College London, Camberwell Road, London SE5 9RS, UK.
Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, Newcomen Street, London SE1 1UL, UK.

Erratum in


Many of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) can be preceded, sometimes for several years, by non-motor symptoms that include hyposmia, sleep disorders, depression and constipation. These non-motor features appear across the spectrum of patients with PD, including individuals with genetic causes of PD. The neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological bases of non-motor abnormalities in PD remain largely undefined. Here, we discuss recent advances that have helped to establish the presence, severity and effect on the quality of life of non-motor symptoms in PD, and the neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological mechanisms involved. We also discuss the potential for the non-motor features to define a prodrome that may enable the early diagnosis of PD.

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