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Cell Metab. 2017 Jun 6;25(6):1243-1253.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.05.002.

Bread Affects Clinical Parameters and Induces Gut Microbiome-Associated Personal Glycemic Responses.

Author information

1
Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel; Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
2
Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel; Internal Medicine Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv 6423906, Israel; Research Center for Digestive Tract and Liver Diseases, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6423906, Israel.
3
Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
4
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
5
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel. Electronic address: avi.levy@weizmann.ac.il.
6
Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel. Electronic address: eran.elinav@weizmann.ac.il.
7
Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel; Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel. Electronic address: eran.segal@weizmann.ac.il.

Abstract

Bread is consumed daily by billions of people, yet evidence regarding its clinical effects is contradicting. Here, we performed a randomized crossover trial of two 1-week-long dietary interventions comprising consumption of either traditionally made sourdough-leavened whole-grain bread or industrially made white bread. We found no significant differential effects of bread type on multiple clinical parameters. The gut microbiota composition remained person specific throughout this trial and was generally resilient to the intervention. We demonstrate statistically significant interpersonal variability in the glycemic response to different bread types, suggesting that the lack of phenotypic difference between the bread types stems from a person-specific effect. We further show that the type of bread that induces the lower glycemic response in each person can be predicted based solely on microbiome data prior to the intervention. Together, we present marked personalization in both bread metabolism and the gut microbiome, suggesting that understanding dietary effects requires integration of person-specific factors.

KEYWORDS:

bread; glycemic responses; gut microbiome; nutrition; personalization; prediction

PMID:
28591632
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmet.2017.05.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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