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Microorganisms. 2017 Jun 7;5(2). pii: E32. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms5020032.

Interaction of Candida Species with the Skin.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. andreas.kuehbacher@igb.fraunhofer.de.
2
Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. anke.burger-kentischer@igb.fraunhofer.de.
3
Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. anke.burger-kentischer@igb.fraunhofer.de.
4
Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. steffen.rupp@igb.fraunhofer.de.
5
Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. steffen.rupp@igb.fraunhofer.de.

Abstract

The human skin is commonly colonized by diverse fungal species. Some Candida species, especially C. albicans, do not only reside on the skin surface as commensals, but also cause infections by growing into the colonized tissue. However, defense mechanisms at the skin barrier level are very efficient, involving residential non-immune and immune cells as well as immune cells specifically recruited to the site of infection. Therefore, the skin is an effective barrier against fungal infection. While most studies about commensal and pathogenic interaction of Candida species with host epithelia focus on the interaction with mucosal surfaces such as the vaginal and gastrointestinal epithelia, less is known about the mechanisms underlying Candida interaction with the skin. In this review, we focus on the ecology and molecular pathogenesis of Candida species on the skin and give an overview of defense mechanisms against C. albicans in this context. We also discuss new research avenues in dermal infection, including the involvement of neurons, fibroblasts, and commensal bacteria in both mouse and human model systems.

KEYWORDS:

3D-tissue models; Candida; fibroblasts; innate immunity; skin infection

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