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Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Jun 3;18(6). pii: E1193. doi: 10.3390/ijms18061193.

Resveratrol, 4' Acetoxy Resveratrol, R-equol, Racemic Equol or S-equol as Cosmeceuticals to Improve Dermal Health.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology and The Neuroscience Center, LS 4005, College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA. Edwin_Lephart@byu.edu.

Abstract

Phytochemicals are botanical compounds used in dermatology applications as cosmeceuticals to improve skin health. Resveratrol and equol are two of the best-known polyphenolic or phytoestrogens having similar chemical structures and some overlapping biological functions to 17β-estradiol. Human skin gene expression was reviewed for 28 different biomarkers when resveratrol, 4' acetoxy resveratrol (4AR), R-equol, racemic equol or S-equol were tested. Sirtuin 1 activator (SIRT 1) was stimulated by resveratrol and 4AR only. Resveratrol, R-equol and racemic equol were effective on the aging biomarkers proliferating cell nuclear factor (PCNA), nerve growth factor (NGF), 5α-reductase and the calcium binding proteins S100 A8 and A9. Racemic equol and 4AR displayed among the highest levels for the collagens, elastin and tissue inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP 1). S-equol displayed the lowest level of effectiveness compared to the other compounds. The 4AR analog was more effective compared to resveratrol by 1.6-fold. R-equol and racemic equol were almost equal in potency displaying greater inhibition vs. resveratrol or its 4' analog for the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), but among the inflammatory biomarkers, resveratrol, 4AR, R-equol and racemic equol displayed high inhibition. Thus, these cosmeceuticals display promise to improve dermal health; however, further study is warranted to understand how phytochemicals protect/enhance the skin.

KEYWORDS:

anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; equol; extracellular matrix proteins; gene array; human skin; phytochemicals; resveratrol

PMID:
28587197
PMCID:
PMC5486016
DOI:
10.3390/ijms18061193
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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