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Mol Med Rep. 2017 Jul;16(1):710-718. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2017.6668. Epub 2017 May 31.

A novel missense mutation in the ALPL gene causes dysfunction of the protein.

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Department of Periodontology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, P.R. China.
National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, P.R. China.
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, P.R. China.
Department of Medical Genetics, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, P.R. China.


Hypophosphatasia (HP) is a rare genetic disease caused by mutation in the alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney (ALPL) gene with highly variable clinical manifestations. Efforts have been made to collect cases with novel mutations and to examine how a missense mutation affects ALPL protein function, which remains difficult to predict. The present study investigated the underlying mechanism of ALPL dysfunction in a patient diagnosed with HP. Bidirectional sequencing of the ALPL gene was conducted in a 5‑year‑old Chinese girl preliminary diagnosed with childhood HP. Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) and Polymorphism Phenotyping v2 (PolyPhen‑2) tools were used to forecast the impact of the mutation on protein function. Site‑directed mutagenesis was performed and transfected into cells to verify the role of the specific mutation. Furthermore, the mechanism of the impact was investigated via all‑atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The patient demonstrated a compound heterozygote with two missense mutations in the ALPL gene, p.Trp29Arg and p.Ile395Val. Trp29 and Ile395 were determined to be 'tolerable' by SIFT, whereas they were 'possibly damaging' by PolyPhen‑2 in terms of conservation. Additionally, HEK293 cells were transfected with plasmids expressing wild type and/or mutated ALPL. Only 4.1% of ALP activity remained when Trp29 was substituted by Arg, whereas 19.1, 33.7, 50.1 and 7.6% ALP activity remained in cells expressing p.Ile395Val, wild type+p.Trp29Arg, wild type+p.Ile395Val and p.Trp29Arg+p.Ile395Val substitutions, respectively. All‑atom MD simulation demonstrated that the N‑terminal helix of mutated ALPL, where Trp29 is located, separated from the main body of the protein after 30 nsec, and moved freely. These results demonstrated that p.Trp29Arg, as a novel missense mutation in the ALPL gene, reduced the enzymatic activity of ALPL. This effect may be associated with an uncontrolled N‑terminal helix. These results provide novel information about the genetic basis of HP, and may facilitate the development of future therapies.

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