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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;960:261-276. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-48382-5_11.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Obesity.

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1
Ankara University, Biotechnology Institute, Tandogan, Besevler, 06110, Ankara, Turkey. eyilmaz@ankara.edu.tr.

Abstract

In recent years, the world has seen an alarming increase in obesity and closely associated with insulin resistance which is a state of low-grade inflammation, the latter characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood and tissues. A shift in energy balance alters systemic metabolic regulation and the important role that chronic inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) play in this process.Why obesity is so closely associated with insulin resistance and inflammation is not understood well. This suggests that there are probably other causes for obesity-related insulin resistance and inflammation. One of these appears to be endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.The ER is a vast membranous network responsible for the trafficking of a wide range of proteins and plays a central role in integrating multiple metabolic signals critical in cellular homeostasis. Conditions that may trigger unfolded protein response activation include increased protein synthesis, the presence of mutant or misfolded proteins, inhibition of protein glycosylation, imbalance of ER calcium levels, glucose and energy deprivation, hypoxia, pathogens or pathogen-associated components and toxins. Thus, characterizing the mechanisms contributing to obesity and identifying potential targets for its prevention and treatment will have a great impact on the control of associated conditions, particularly T2D.

KEYWORDS:

Autophagy; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Lipotoxicity; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes

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