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J Cell Sci. 2017 Jul 15;130(14):2405-2415. doi: 10.1242/jcs.200477. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Arf6 and Rab22 mediate T cell conjugate formation by regulating clathrin-independent endosomal membrane trafficking.

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Cell Biology & Physiology Center, NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.


Endosomal trafficking can influence the composition of the plasma membrane and the ability of cells to polarize their membranes. Here, we examined whether trafficking through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) affects the ability of T cells to form a cell-cell conjugate with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We show that CIE occurs in both the Jurkat T cell line and primary human T cells. In Jurkat cells, the activities of two guanine nucleotide binding proteins, Arf6 and Rab22 (also known as Rab22a), influence CIE and conjugate formation. Expression of the constitutively active form of Arf6, Arf6Q67L, inhibits CIE and conjugate formation, and results in the accumulation of vacuoles containing lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and CD4, molecules important for T cell interaction with the APC. Moreover, expression of the GTP-binding defective mutant of Rab22, Rab22S19N, inhibits CIE and conjugate formation, suggesting that Rab22 function is required for these activities. Furthermore, Jurkat cells expressing Rab22S19N were impaired in spreading onto coverslips coated with T cell receptor-activating antibodies. These observations support a role for CIE, Arf6 and Rab22 in conjugate formation between T cells and APCs.


Arf6; Clathrin-independent endocytosis; Immunological synapse; Rab22; Rab22a; T cell

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