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J Med Food. 2017 Jun;20(6):626-635. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2017.3935. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Levels.

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1 Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University , Seoul, Korea.
2 Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, College of Science and Industry Convergence, Ewha Womans University , Seoul, Korea.
3 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University , Cheonan-si, Korea.
4 Research Center for Industrialization of Natural Nutraceuticals, Dankook University , Cheonan-si, Korea.


During roasting, major changes occur in the composition and physiological effects of coffee beans. In this study, in vitro antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects of Coffea arabica green coffee extracts were investigated at different roasting levels corresponding to Light, Medium, City, and French roast. Total caffeine did not show huge difference according to roasting level, but total chlorogenic acid contents were higher in light roasted coffee extract than other roasted groups. In addition, light roasted coffee extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. To determine the in vitro antioxidant property, coffee extracts were used to treat AML-12 cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration and mRNA expression levels of genes related to GSH synthesis were negatively related to roasting levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The cellular antioxidant activity of coffee extracts exhibited similar patterns as the AML-12 cells. The expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 was decreased in cells treated with the coffee extracts and the expression decreased with increasing roasting levels. These data suggest that coffee has physiological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and these effects are negatively correlated with roasting levels in the cell models.


anti-inflammatory; antioxidative; coffee; hepatoprotection; roasting degree

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