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J Esthet Restor Dent. 2017 Nov 12;29(6):409-415. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12309. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

A prospective clinical trial to assess the optical efficacy of pink neck implants and pink abutments on soft tissue esthetics.

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Department Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Division of Periodontology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115.
Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115.
Department of Periodontics, Columbia University, College of Dental Medicine, New York, New York.
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Center of Dental Medicine University Hospital Jena, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.
Department of Prosthodontics, Columbia University, College of Dental Medicine, New York, New York.



The purpose of this prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical study was to analyze the optical effects of an anodized pink colored implant shoulder/abutment system in the peri-implant mucosa of immediately placed dental implants.


Forty subjects with a restoratively hopeless tooth in the maxillary esthetic zone, were recruited and randomized to receive either a pink-neck implant, or a conventional gray implant. All patients received an immediate implant and immediate provisional and two identical CAD/CAM titanium abutments with different surface colors: pink and gray, and one zirconia all-ceramic crown. The color of the peri-implant mucosa was measured using a dental spectrophotometer and analyzed using CIELAB color system.


The overall color difference between the peri-implant mucosa with a pink abutment and a gray abutment was ΔE = 4.22. Patients with gray implants presented a color change of ΔE = 3.86-4.17 with this abutment change, while patients with pink implants had a color change of ΔE = 3.84-4.69. The peri-implant mucosa with a pink abutment was significantly more red when compared with a gray abutment (P ≤ .01).


When a pink abutment was used, there is a significant color change of the peri-implant mucosa that is above the detectable color threshold.


Esthetic outcomes are important for the success of implant treatment of maxillary anterior implants. The phenomenon of the gray color of a dental implant and abutment shining through the peri-implant mucosa has been documented in the literature. The objective of this study was to assess the optical effect of an anodized pink-neck implant and a pink abutment on the color of peri-implant mucosa. This study demonstrates that using pink-neck implant and a pink abutment would contribute positively to the overall esthetic outcome for an anterior implant.


dental materials; esthetic dentistry; implants

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