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Nat Ecol Evol. 2017 Jun;1(6):0217. doi: 10.1038/s41559-017-0127. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Random sequences are an abundant source of bioactive RNAs or peptides.

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Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, August-Thienemannstrasse 2, 24306 Plön, Germany.


It is generally assumed that new genes arise through duplication and/or recombination of existing genes. The probability that a new functional gene could arise out of random non-coding DNA is so far considered to be negligible, since it seems unlikely that such a RNA or protein sequence could have an initial function that influences the fitness of an organism. We have here tested this question systematically, by expressing clones with random sequences in E . coli and subjecting them to competitive growth. Contrary to expectations, we find that random sequences with bioactivity are not rare. In our experiments we find that up to 25% of the evaluated clones enhance the growth rate of their cells and up to 52% inhibit growth. Testing of individual clones in competition assays confirms their activity and provides an indication that their activity could be exerted either by the transcribed RNA or the translated peptide. This suggests that transcribed and translated random parts of the genome could indeed have a high potential to become functional. The results also suggest that random sequences may become an effective new source of molecules for studying cellular functions, as well as for pharmacological activity screening.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of financial interests The work described in this publication is subject to patent application by the Max-Planck Society.

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