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Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2017 Aug;13(8):1337-1346. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2017.04.003. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Use of prescribed opioids before and after bariatric surgery: prospective evidence from a U.S. multicenter cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address: kingw@edc.pitt.edu.
2
Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
3
Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
4
Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
5
Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.
6
Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
7
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and Duquesne University School of Nursing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
8
Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, North Dakota.
9
Department of Surgery, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina.
10
Department of Surgery, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon.
11
Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
12
Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, North Dakota; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Limited evidence suggests bariatric surgery may not reduce opioid analgesic use, despite improvements in pain.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine if use of prescribed opioid analgesics changes in the short and long term after bariatric surgery and to identify factors associated with continued and postsurgery initiated use.

SETTING:

Ten U.S. hospitals.

METHODS:

The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study. Assessments were conducted presurgery, 6 months postsurgery, and annually postsurgery for up to 7 years until January 2015. Opioid use was defined as self-reported daily, weekly, or "as needed" use of a prescribed medication classified as an opioid analgesic.

RESULTS:

Of 2258 participants with baseline data, 2218 completed follow-up assessment(s) (78.7% were female, median body mass index: 46; 70.6% underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). Prevalence of opioid use decreased after surgery from 14.7% (95% CI: 13.3-16.2) at baseline to 12.9% (95% CI: 11.5-14.4) at month 6 but then increased to 20.3%, above baseline levels, as time progressed (95% CI: 18.2-22.5) at year 7. Among participants without baseline opioid use (n = 1892), opioid use prevalence increased from 5.8% (95% CI: 4.7-6.9) at month 6 to 14.2% (95% CI: 12.2-16.3) at year 7. Public versus private health insurance, more pain presurgery, undergoing subsequent surgeries, worsening or less improvement in pain, and starting or continuing nonopioid analgesics postsurgery were significantly associated with higher risk of postsurgery initiated opioid use.

CONCLUSION:

After bariatric surgery, prevalence of prescribed opioid analgesic use initially decreased but then increased to surpass baseline prevalence, suggesting the need for alternative methods of pain management in this population.

KEYWORDS:

Analgesia; Bariatric surgery; Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band; Medication; Narcotic; Opioid; Pain; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Severe obesity

PMID:
28579202
PMCID:
PMC5568488
DOI:
10.1016/j.soard.2017.04.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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