Send to

Choose Destination
J Voice. 2018 Mar;32(2):200-208. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2017.03.022. Epub 2017 May 31.

Comparison of Effects Produced by Physiological Versus Traditional Vocal Warm-up in Contemporary Commercial Music Singers.

Author information

Department of Research, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Lamadrid 875, San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.
Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, University of Talca, 2 Norte 685, Talca, Chile.
Department of Communication Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Department of Otolaryngology, Las Condes Clinic, Avenida Independencia 1027, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:
Department of Communication Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.



The present study aimed to observe whether physiological warm-up and traditional singing warm-up differently affect aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and self-perceived parameters of voice in Contemporary Commercial Music singers.


Thirty subjects were asked to perform a 15-minute session of vocal warm-up. They were randomly assigned to one of two types of vocal warm-up: physiological (based on semi-occluded exercises) or traditional (singing warm-up based on open vowel [a:]). Aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and self-perceived voice quality assessments were carried out before (pre) and after (post) warm-up.


No significant differences were found when comparing both types of vocal warm-up methods, either in subjective or in objective measures. Furthermore, the main positive effect observed in both groups when comparing pre and post conditions was a better self-reported quality of voice. Additionally, significant differences were observed for sound pressure level (decrease), glottal airflow (increase), and aerodynamic efficiency (decrease) in the traditional warm-up group.


Both traditional and physiological warm-ups produce favorable voice sensations. Moreover, there are no evident differences in aerodynamic and electroglottographic variables when comparing both types of vocal warm-ups. Some changes after traditional warm-up (decreased intensity, increased airflow, and decreased aerodynamic efficiency) could imply an early stage of vocal fatigue.


Aerodynamics; Semi-occluded vocal tract; Singing voice; Tube phonation; Warm-up

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center