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Nephrol Ther. 2017 Apr;13 Suppl 1:S29-S34. doi: 10.1016/j.nephro.2017.01.015.

Oxygen sensors as therapeutic targets in kidney disease.

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Department of medicine, Vanderbilt university medical center, Nashville, TN, USA; Departments of cancer biology and molecular physiology and biophysics, Vanderbilt university school of medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; Medical and research services, department of veterans affairs hospital, Tennessee Valley healthcare system, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:


Hypoxia is a common clinical problem that has profound effects on renal homeostasis. Prolyl-4-hydroxylases PHD1, 2 and 3 function as oxygen sensors and control the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), an oxygen-sensitive transcription factor that regulates a multitude of hypoxia responses, which help cells and tissues to adapt to low oxygen environments. This review provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms that govern these hypoxia responses and discusses clinical experience with compounds that inhibit prolyl-4-hydroxylases to harness HIF responses for therapy in nephrology.


Chronic kidney disease; Erythropoietin; Hypoxia; Hypoxia-inducible factor; Prolyl-4-hydroxylase

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